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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Wild cardamom in the land user's field
Further comments
Date 12/05/2017
Location Chalearnxay village, Xanxay district of Attapue province
Name of photographer Sinnalong Khamvongchan
Name of photographer 63,47

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Wild cardamom plantation for sustainable forest management
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapue province
Further specification of location : Xayxay district

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person :
Other (specify) : ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname : Souvanchieng
Lastname / surname : ບຸດດາທົນ
First name(s) : Bouathong
First name(s) : ບົວທອງ
Gender : male,
Gender : female,
Name of institution :
Name of institution : ເປັນປະຊາຊົນ
Address : Chalernxay village, Xanxay district of Attapue province
Address : ຄຸ້ມດາກຮຽດ, ບ້ານ ຈະເລີນໄຊ, ເມືອງ ຊານໄຊ, ແຂວງ ອັດຕະປື
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Phone no. 1 : 0309138663
Phone no. 1 : 0309138663
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 2 :
E-mail 2 :

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 12/05/2017
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

No data !

7. Reference to/ comparison with other Technologies

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Cardamom planting is a non timber forest product. Wild cardamom planting take place in traditional agroforestry systems based on shifting agriculture. The objectives of this technologies are to reach sustainable forest use and to generate household income.
Description : Wild cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is a non-timber forest product (NTFP) that grows naturally in South Asia at elevations between 600 and 1.200 meters under the canopy of humid tropical forests (average temperature between 15-25 °C, PH level between 5,5- 6,5). In Laos, completely wild cardamom is still found in mountainous secondary forest at an elevation upwards of 700 meters, mainly near watercourses. In the past, it was commonly found by local people but never harvested or used. However, the international demand for cardamom began in 2000, and increased dramatically since then. This encouraged an increasing number of local villagers to collect cardamom from natural forest areas for sale to generate income for their households. This, however, caused depletion of cardamom in forest areas and also created conflicts among the people. Hence, the village people started to collect cardamom seedlings from the forest to cultivate them in their own upland fields, where farmers used to have upland rice cultivation before. Normally after rice harvest, they planted wild cardamom seedlings and led them grow up thogether with other wild plants and trees. It was treated as a kind of fallow. As a result of the domestication they were able to save time compared to the collection of wild cardamom in the forest. In 2002 it is estimated that two third of the harvest came from plantations. Cardamom cultivation on former fallow fields does not require significant investments – only hoes, knifes, and bags for collecting natural cardamom seedlings. One hectare of land requires around 15 days of seedling collection in the forest. The selected seedlings should reach an appropriate maturity (dark green leaves with 1 to 2 yellow leaves, height of stem about 1 to 2 meters) that promotes stem production, ensures high survival rate during transportation, and tolerates new environmental conditions at the planting site. Then, cardamom seedlings need to be replanted at latest two days after collection in the prepared plot. Typically, people plant cardamom during June – July with the beginning of wet season. Before in May, bush clearance is needed, but higher trees should be preserved at approximately 40 percent to provide a canopy for the required shadow to the cardamom. Vegetation removal necessitates observation and background knowledge of the individual land user. Cardamom planting should be established in lines and rows as follow: the space between the rows is 1 meter and 1.2 meters between the lines. The planting holes for the cardamom seedlings are 20 x 20 cm and 10 to 15 centimetres in depth. The space between the plants is 2 x 2 m, which facilitates the accessibility during weeding, maintenance, and harvest. It is recommended that farmers should plant three seedlings per hole. On average, there will be 2,500 holes/ha that requires a total of 7,500 seedlings per hectare. After that, fertile soil should be applied to refill the holes by moderate feet pressure at the end. Most farmers don’t use manure or fertilizers in their cardamom cultivations. Maintenance requires mainly the thinning of some tree branches to provide adequate sunlight as required by the cardamom plants. This can be implemented once a year after harvest. Cardamom plants provide fruits within four years after planting. During the establishment period till the first harvest the farmer’s workload increases as they have to collect still wild cardamom in the forests as well. Harvesting can be carried out annually during August – September with an average production of 320 kg per hectare for dried cardamom and approximately 578 kg of fresh cardamom. The market demand for this kind of cardamom is high, because it is internationally requested as medicinal product. Therefore, the local people are satisfied with the selling price offered by middle men who buy the production at 70,000 Kip/kg. Benefits from cardamom plantation include more income for local people, increase in forest cover, stabilization of slash and burn shifting cultivation and less impacts on agricultural lands. In addition, cardamom plantations help balancing the ecosystem and provide natural habitats for various animal and plant species.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : Wild cardamom tree and seed
Caption, explanation of photo : Wild cardamom tree in humid forest
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date :
Date : 12/05/2017
Location : Chalernxay village, Xanxay district of Attapue province
Location : Chalernxay village, Xanxay district of Attapue province
Name of photographer : Catherine Aubertin
Name of photographer : Bounthanom Bouahom
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapue province
Further specification of location : Xayxay district
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : 2-10 sites,
Indicate year of implementation : 2010
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through land users' innovation,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : conserve ecosystem, preserve/ improve biodiversity, create beneficial economic impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland,
Land use type : Tree and shrub cropping,
other (specify) :
Main crops (cash and food crops) :
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify :
Livestock density (if relevant) :
SLM group : agroforestry, ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction,
other (specify) :
Specify the spread of the Technology : evenly spread over an area,
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered : < 0.1 km2 (10 ha),
Comments :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Sinnalong Vongkhamchan
Date : 13/05/2017
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing) :
- The land users prepare land during 5 days in May (selected cutting of trees and shrub) - During June to July, when wet season starts, the cardamom seedlings are collected in the forest. To cover 1 hectare 2 persons have to collect during 15 days (during the time cardamom is flowering). The land users select mature cardamom seedlings of (1 to 2 meters in height). - Planting holes are 20 x 20 cm, depth 10-15 cm, planting distance is 2 x 2 meters and per hole 3 seedlings are planted (2500 trees/ha). - Cardamom here is cultivated at a slope rate of 15%. No fertilizers were in use in the example of this case study.
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : 1
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare : hactare
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : LAK
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50.000
Activity : Clearing soil from bushes and weeds
Activity : Thining of tree branches
Activity : Collecting of cardamom seedlings
Activity : Planting
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Agronomic
Timing : April to May (before rain)
Timing : Before planting
Timing : June to July
Timing : July
Specify input : Labour for land preparation
Specify input : Labour for collection of seedlings
Specify input : Labour for planting
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 30
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 500000
Total costs per input : 1500000
Total costs per input : 500000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Knief
Specify input : Shovel
Specify input : Blasket for cardamom tree
Specify input : Bag
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 30
Costs per Unit : 60000
Costs per Unit : 80000
Costs per Unit : 150000
Costs per Unit : 2500
Total costs per input : 180000
Total costs per input : 240000
Total costs per input : 450000
Total costs per input : 75000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Manure
Unit : kg
Quantity : 2500
Costs per Unit : 300
Total costs per input : 750000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 4195000
Activity : Weeding
Activity : Use manure
Activity : Harvesting
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Vegetative
Type of measure : Management
Timing/ frequency : March to April
Timing/ frequency : September after harvesting
Timing/ frequency : August to September
Specify input : Labour for weeding
Specify input : Labour to use manure
Specify input : Labour for harvesting
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 500000
Total costs per input : 500000
Total costs per input : 500000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Manure
Unit : kg
Quantity : 300
Costs per Unit : 2500
Total costs per input : 750000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 2250000
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : Labour and cost for manure are the most important factors.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 1,001-1,500 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm :
Specifications/ comments on rainfall :
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : District of Agriculture and Forestry Office in Xanxay district
Agro-climatic zone : sub-humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : moderate (6-10%),
Landforms : hill slopes,
Altitudinal zone :
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : not relevant,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : moderately deep (51-80 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : fine/ heavy (clay),
Topsoil organic matter : low (<1%),
Ground water table : > 50 m,
Availability of surface water : medium,
Water quality (untreated) : poor drinking water (treatment required),
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : commercial/ market,
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : rich,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : women, men,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 1-2 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : medium-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, not titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights :
other (specify) : Rain
health : poor
education : moderate
technical assistance : moderate
employment (e.g. off-farm) : poor
markets : moderate
energy : poor
roads and transport : moderate
drinking water and sanitation : poor
financial services : poor

5. Impacts and concluding statements

farm income : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before the farmer did not cultivate cardamom on the fallow area.Thus, the farm income increased by selling the cardamom.
diversity of income sources : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase income from Cardamom because before farmers did not collected cardamom for commercial Cardamom plantations under the forest canopy generate an additional income source.
workload : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Famers have now their own cardamom fields near the villages. And hence, this not anymore needs searching the natural forest after wild cardamom which is time consuming.
conflict mitigation : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Conflictual situations decreased because farmers have now their own cardamom fields.
soil moisture : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
plant diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase in local mushrooms and moss.
invasive alien species : -1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase in number of snakes and mosquitos.
habitat diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increased in earthworms, milli pest and bug.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
impact of greenhouse gases : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Better protection of the natural forests, as cultivated cardamom produces satisfactory yields for around 15 years. Thus, long fallow period normally needed for rice cultivation on the same plot can be compensated. Less frequent forest burning, less aerosols and stalilization of forest area.
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments regarding impact assessment :
Type of climatic change/ extreme : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
Season : winter
Type of climatic change/ extreme : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : positive,
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 10-50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 90-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Reduced conflicts regarding cardamom harvest that formerly was collected in the open forest.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increase in forest cover.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Improved soil in the slash and burn shifting cultivation area.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Preservation of the forest resources and improvement of the local ecosystem through this sustainable cardamom cultivation.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The former traditional and extensive cardamom collection in the forests has been reduced, but the new cardamom plantation technique stabilized at the same time the shifting cultivation area.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : The higher amount of cardamom plants in the humid forest promoted snakes and mosquitos.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : The land users had difficulties to find suitable cardamom seedlings, because the natural forests are very messy and humid.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : The strict eradication of the slash-and-burn practice by the new land allocation policy, limited and threat the traditional cardamom collection.
How can they be overcome? :
How can they be overcome? :
How can they be overcome? :

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1