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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Bambusa oldhamii planting along river bank to protect soil erosion
Further comments
Date 15/05/2017
Location Vangnhang village, Phouvong District, Attapue province
Name of photographer Chanvilay
Name of photographer 55,60

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Cultivation of Bamboo to Prevent Soil Erosion
Locally used name : ເຕັກນິກການປູກໄມ້ໄຜ່ ເພື່ອປ້ອງກັນດິນເຈື່ອນ
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Phouvong District, Attapue Province
Further specification of location : Vangnhang Vaillage

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname : Kounthisuck Chansamay
First name(s) : Chansamay
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Mai Sangphai (Bambusa oldhamii) planting technique for soil erosion control along river bank due to soil fixation by deep and widespread roots during rainy season when there are high water levels and increased flow velocity
Description : During the rainy season when the rivers’ water levels are high and there is an increase in the velocity of the water flow, the Bambusa oldhamii (giant timber bamboo) has been especially selected to be grown along river banks because of its deep root system which effectively binds the soil thereby controlling soil erosion along river banks. During the annual rainy season between July – October in Vangyang village (Phouvong district, Attapue province) the region experiences intense rainfall ranging from 2,500-3,000 mm/year (source: The Phouvong District Hydrology and Meteorology Office). Soil erosion occurs along riverbanks, with the end effect of gradually widening the river bed. It can be noted that the river banks in Vangyang village have already eroded by two meters which has resulted in the loss of agricultural land that was previously used to cultivate bananas and sugarcane. In order to counteract this development some of the land users initiated the planting Bambusa oldhamii on riverbanks in 2007. This strain of bamboo was selected because people could observe that the natural bamboo forest growing on opposite side of the river to their land experienced minimal soil erosion as the deep root system was able to successfully secure the soil along these stream banks. On top, Bambuse oldhamii has delicious shoots (which are consumed by land users) and less thorns compared to other wild bamboo species. The application of this technology involves the following: • The site should be selected along the stream banks especially where the risk of erosion is occurring. Bamboo should be planted approximately 3 meters from the edge of the bank. Bamboo is grown to protect the bank on one side of the stream from soil erosion whilst the other side of the stream is protected by natural bamboo species. • Land preparation involves the clearance of bush around the planting pits. • Bamboo rhizomes (Bambusa oldhamii) should be gathered locally from the parent plants. This should amount to approximately 120 healthy one-year old rhizomes each having a considerable number of feeder roots with a length of 60 to 70cm. Forty holes measuring 50cm x 50cm and 50 cm depth should be dug in a row leaving a gap of 5 meters between each hole along the stream bank when the bamboo’s rhizome grow up it will be cover the gap for few meters from pits ( it will take about 4-5 years). After the land has been prepared 2-3 bamboo rhizomes should be replanted in each of the holes. The refilling of the holes with soil and watering should take about one day. Planting can be undertaken in January (dry season) because soil texture in dry season is less sensitive to erosion. This is a suitable time for bamboo as the roots will propagate faster. In the dry season watering needs to be done twice a week until the rhizomes establish new roots and stems. Generally, the bamboo will grow 4-5 new stems during the first year after having been replanted, but at this stage it is still unable to protect the banks from erosion. Some vegetation around the pits has been cleared before replanting and leave some vegetation on the edge to minimize erosion when the bamboo trees still young. When the bamboo is about 2-3 years old, it will be able to grow up to three times the amount of additional stems compared to its output in the first year. At this time the bamboo’s root system is able to expand more widely and deeply which helps to bind the soil and thereby it protects the stream banks from erosion during high water levels. (They left the bush and some vegetation on the edge of the stream, clearance of bush around the planting pits only) . Bamboo has multiple benefits: In fact, the older bamboo is able to provide a greater amount of protection and the bamboo shoots can either be consumed or sold by the land owners. Furthermore the bamboo culms can be used or sold for the manufacture of a variety of handicrafts. Bamboo enhances the micro-organisms habitat living in Rhizosphere (high biological activity and high nutrient availability) of the roots system and maintains the soil moisture throughout the year. The decaying bamboo leaves become a natural compost. The land owners are therefore very content and are willing to recommend the technology to their neighbors who also own land along the stream banks. The weaknesses: (1) Once the bamboo expands and grows into clumps it becomes the habitat of mosquitoes and snakes and thus weeding is required. (2) Bamboo leaves that have fallen into the water decay afterwards and deteriorate the water quality, and therefore it is recommended to cut back old branches before the leaves have the opportunity to fall into the stream.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : Bambusa oldhamii planted along river bank
Caption, explanation of photo : Bambusa oldhamii planting along river bank
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 16/05/2017
Date : 16/05/2017
Location : Vangnhang Vaillage, Phouvong District, Attapue Province
Location : Vangnhang Vaillage, Phouvong District, Attapue Province
Name of photographer : Chanvilay
Name of photographer : Chanvilay
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Phouvong District, Attapue Province
Further specification of location : Vangnhang Vaillage
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : single site,
Comments : There are many bamboo trees in the forest along the stream but the land user who implements this technology is only in a single site in the village.
Indicate year of implementation : 2007
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through land users' innovation,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, reduce risk of disasters, adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland, Forest/ woodlands, assets/img/pictos/land_7.png, , tech_lu_forest, Waterways, waterbodies, wetlands, assets/img/pictos/land_waterways.png, , tech_lu_waterways,
Land use type : Perennial (non-woody) cropping,
other (specify) :
Annual cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Annual cropping system : null
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify :
Is intercropping practiced? : null
If yes, specify which crops are intercropped :
Is crop rotation practiced? : null
If yes, specify :
: Tree plantation, afforestation,
other (specify) :
(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands: Specify management type :
Type of (semi-)natural forest :
If type of forest is not listed above, specify other type :
Tree plantation, afforestation: Specify origin and composition of species :
Type of tree plantation, afforestation :
If type of forest is not listed above, specify other type :
Type of tree : Bamboo bamboo,
If type of tree is not listed above, specify other type :
Are the trees specified above deciduous or evergreen? :
Products and services : Nature conservation/ protection, Protection against natural hazards,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Drainage lines, waterways,
other (specify) :
Main products/ services :
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied :
other (e.g. post-flooding) : Not require water
Comments : Because it use water from river where they has planted
SLM group : surface water management (spring, river, lakes, sea), ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction,
other (specify) :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : reduce land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Chanvilay
Date : 16/05/2017
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology unit,
Specify unit : Along the river bank
Specify dimensions of unit (if relevant) : 200 m
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : kip
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50000 kip
Activity : Collect Bamboo rhizomes (Bambusa oldhamii) from the parent plants (120 healthy one-year old rhizomes each)
Activity : preparing the planting area: clear bushes
Activity : Dig the planting pits
Activity : planting Bamboo rhizomes, refill pits with earth
Activity : Water the plants (twice a week until the rhizomes establish new roots and stems).
Timing (season) : December
Timing (season) : December
Timing (season) : January
Timing (season) : January
Timing (season) :
Specify input : Labor
Unit : person-day
Quantity : 5
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 250000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Hoe
Specify input : Knife
Specify input : shovel
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Costs per Unit : 25000
Total costs per input : 150000
Total costs per input : 105000
Total costs per input : 50000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Rhizome variety
Unit : Rhizome
Quantity : 120
Costs per Unit : 3000
Total costs per input : 360000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 915000
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD : 114.38
Activity : Weeding around planting area (between bamboo stems)
Activity : Replace the dead rhizome
Timing/ frequency : Once a month
Timing/ frequency : Once a year
Specify input : Labor
Unit : person-day
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 50000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Rhizome variety
Unit : Rhizome
Quantity : 5
Costs per Unit : 3000
Total costs per input : 15000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 65000
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD : 8.13
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : Labor for maintenance is the most important effect to the cost

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 1,501-2,000 mm, 2,001-3,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 1500
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : Precipitation is the lowest in January. Most precipitation falls in July - October , with an average of 566 mm in that period
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Phouvong District of Natural Resources and Environment Office
Agro-climatic zone : sub-humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : flat (0-2%),
Landforms : valley floors,
Altitudinal zone : 101-500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : not relevant,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : shallow (21-50 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : < 5 m,
Availability of surface water : good,
Water quality (untreated) : for agricultural use only (irrigation),
Water quality refers to: :
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : Yes
Regularity : episodically
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : subsistence (self-supply),
Off-farm income : > 50% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : men,
Age of land users : middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : < 0.5 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : small-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, not titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system? : null
Specify :
health : good
education : good
technical assistance : moderate
employment (e.g. off-farm) : good
markets : moderate
energy : good
roads and transport : moderate
drinking water and sanitation : good
financial services : good

5. Impacts and concluding statements

production area (new land under cultivation/ use) : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before planting bamboo the production area was gradually damaged by stream bank erosion, after bamboo has been planted the production area loss was minimized
workload : -1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : In addition to the agricultural activities the farmer has to maintain their bamboo (cut stems, weed) Otherwise it will grow dense and difficult to pass in to harvest the shoots or stems
recreational opportunities : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Bamboo could provide shade relaxing place along the stream bank for picnic or fishing
soil loss : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : previously: soil loss by water erosion; after bamboo has been planted and grown up the soil was protected by bamboo's root system
landslides/ debris flows : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : In the past approximate 2 meters loss of land along stream bank, after bamboo has been planted no more land has been lost in the protected area
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
downstream siltation : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Downstream siltation is decreased due to less eroded soil.
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
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Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
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Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
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Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
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Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements) :
Season : wet/ rainy season
increase or decrease : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Short-term returns : slightly negative,
Long-term returns : positive,
Short-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
Long-term returns : slightly positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 1-10%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 91-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Helps to protect the soil from erosion
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : The bamboo shoots can be consumed as well as sold, and the bamboo culms can also be sold for the manufacture of handicrafts
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Enhances the micro-organisms habitat living in Rhizoshere (high biological activity and high nutrient availability) of the roots system
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Bamboo has a considerable number of roots which help to effectively bind the soil
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Once the bamboo expands and grows into clumps it becomes the habitat of mosquitoes and snakes
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : the falling leaves in water decay and deteriorate water quality,
How can they be overcome? : thus weeding is required;
How can they be overcome? : thus it is recommended to trip old branches before its leaves fall down into streams.

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 place
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 person
When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 16/05/2017
Comments :