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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Land user brings the wood logs to the rice field to make barriers
Further comments
Date 18/05/2017
Location Vongvilay village Phouvong district Attapue province
Name of photographer Vadsana Boualaivan
Name of photographer

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Logs to reduce surface run-off during the rainy season
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapue Province
Further specification of location : Phouvong District, North Vongvillay village

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname :
First name(s) : Bounlert
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Address : North Vongvilay village, Phouvong district, Attaoue province
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Phone no. 1 :
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 2 :

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 18/05/2017
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

No data !

7. Reference to/ comparison with other Technologies

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Logs to reduce surface run-off during the rainy season.
Description : In the upland areas with 3-5 % at foot slopes and 16-30% hill slopes of Lao PDR rotational shifting cultivation has been the primary means of the local people’s livelihood for many generations. Given the topography of the area with its hill slopes it restricts the opportunities for agricultural development. After the land on foot slopes has been cleared and the remaining vegetation burned off in preparation for agricultural activities there are significant impacts on land use particularly during the rainy season which occurs between May-November. There are heavy downpours especially in the months of September and October that create significant sediment transport along the mountain valleys and it also results in flushing organic matter on the surface being flushed along the road sides and ending up in waterways. Furthermore decayed vegetation is washed over the crops. The negative impacts experienced from the loss of fertile topsoil motivated many of the land users to develop some kind of technology in 2015 that could control this run-off from the mountains. This technology was also meant to help maintain nutrient levels on topsoil as without a technology the nutrients are being flushed down the hillside. It can be assembled using a collection of local logs approximately 4-5 meters in length and around 15-20 cm in diameter (obtained through the clearance of upland rice fields). The logs should be arranged horizontally at the position of a designated drainage site where the run-off flows from a particular agricultural area. They should be stacked on top of one another until reaching a height of about 1 meter. A buttress should also be erected using mature bamboo poles as supporting posts with a length of 1.5 meters and diameter of about 10 cm so as to prevent the logs from sliding down the hillside. The bamboo poles should be driven about 50 cm into the ground and then tightened with ropes. This technology should only be constructed after the planting of upland rice fields has been completed in mountainous areas which have slopes between 20-25%. In general, the local residents have set up this mechanism at 2-3 selected sites within an agricultural plot. The benefits of this technology include mitigating the impacts of soil run-off whilst facilitating the distribution of soil nutrients around the agricultural plot of land. The water and top soil run-off is slowed down when it reaches the log wall and is then directed to flow out on either side of the technology. Previously the average rice yield used to be 1.5 tons/ha, but then the upland rice yields increased to 2 tons/ha after the application of this technology. This is due to the reduction of soil surface losses and an increase in the soil’s organic matter that accumulates through the processes of sedimentation and biomass transport. The quality of the surrounding soil improves through the decay of biomass and the breakdown of the soil by organisms such as earthworms and millipedes. This technology can be installed on hill slopes . The technology is approximately 1 meter in height (above ground) and 4 -5 meters in length. The supporting posts need to be driven 50 cm into the ground. This technology can be used at the location of seasonal drainage points or water channels on hill slopes between 20-25% (with usually 2 or 3 sites per agricultural plot). Strengths: Reduces sediment run-off, increases organic matter on the soil’s surface (builds a thicker layer of soil), financially economical, and distributes nutrients on agricultural plots. Weaknesses disadvantages/ risks of the technology/ how to overcome them: Most of these technologies are not permanent and quite exposed and therefore require annual repair and maintenance. If the run-off facility is to be upgraded, it would need the use of a better quality of rope and concrete posts. However, most people still use the readily available local materials which affects the quality of the water run-off technology as well as its effectiveness. Furthermore this technology may need to be installed at several sites along the same channel on the foot slopes.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : Farmer using wooden logs for the construction of a cross-slope barrier fixed by bamboo plants.
Caption, explanation of photo : Wooden logs residues as barrier against water flow, spread sediment and change water way to production area
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 18/05/2017
Date : 18/05/2017
Location : North Vongvillay village, Phouvong district, Attapue Province
Location : North Vongvillay village, Phouvong district, Attapue Province
Name of photographer : Vadsana Boualaivan
Name of photographer : Vadsana Boualaivan
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapue Province
Further specification of location : Phouvong District, North Vongvillay village
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : single site,
Indicate year of implementation : 2015
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through land users' innovation,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, reduce risk of disasters,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland,
Land use type : Annual cropping,
other (specify) :
Main crops (cash and food crops) : Upland rice, maize, banana, sugar can, cassava
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify :
Livestock density (if relevant) :
SLM group : cross-slope measure,
other (specify) :
Specify the spread of the Technology : applied at specific points/ concentrated on a small area,
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered :
Comments : Applied where water or erosion canals occur in the rice field.
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation, reduce land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Vadsana Boualaivan
Date : 18/05/2017
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing) :
The technique is applied on foot slope area Wooden log barriers are created with hight of 1 meter from the surface. The length of the logs is about 4-5 meters . Depth of the bamboo post into the soil is 50 centimeters to hold the logs, This technique is implement on the top of the rice field at the slope 20-25%, where the water form natural surface canals.
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology unit,
Specify unit : 2 wooden log barriers
Specify volume, length, etc. (if relevant) : Width: 4-5 meters / High 1 meter (1 barrier)
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : kip
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50000
Activity : Collect the wood logs and bamboo postsv
Activity : Bury the bamboo post
Activity : Arrange the wood
Type of measure : Structural
Type of measure : Structural
Type of measure : Structural
Timing : After harvesting
Timing :
Timing :
Comments : place on the water canal to reduce water flow
Specify input : labor ( for two barriers )
Unit : person-day
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 100000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : hoe
Specify input : shovel
Specify input : hummer
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 25000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Total costs per input : 50000
Total costs per input : 25000
Total costs per input : 20000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : timber logs (for two barriers)
Specify input : bamboo (for two barriers )
Unit : piece
Unit : stick
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit :
Costs per Unit :
Total costs per input :
Total costs per input :
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 195000
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs :
Comments : Regarding the construction material:bamboo and dead wooden logs are for free, as they are collected from the surrounding.
Activity : Repair of the barrier
Type of measure : Structural
Timing/ frequency : 2 times a year
Comments : using residue material in the nature for maintenance
Specify input : labor (for two barriers )
Unit : person
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 100000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : knife
Specify input : shovel
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 25000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Total costs per input : 50000
Total costs per input : 20000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : timber ( for two barriers )
Specify input : bamboo ( for two barriers )
Unit : piece
Unit : stick
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit :
Costs per Unit :
Total costs per input :
Total costs per input :
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 170000
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : The equipment is the most important factor affecting the costs.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 2,001-3,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 2500
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : From May to September there is more rain, highest between July and September and it decreases to lowest from November to April
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Phouvong district natural resource office
Agro-climatic zone : sub-humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate : The average annual temperature is 26.2 °C
Slopes on average : gentle (3-5%), hilly (16-30%),
Landforms : hill slopes, footslopes,
Altitudinal zone : 101-500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : concave situations,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : moderately deep (51-80 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : fine/ heavy (clay),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : 5-50 m,
Availability of surface water : medium,
Water quality (untreated) : good drinking water,
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : mixed (subsistence/ commercial,
Off-farm income : 10-50% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : poor,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : men,
Age of land users : children, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 0.5-1 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : small-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, not titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
health : good
education : good
technical assistance : moderate
employment (e.g. off-farm) : moderate
markets : moderate
energy : moderate
roads and transport : good
drinking water and sanitation : moderate
financial services : poor

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 2
Quantity before SLM : 1.5 ton/ha
Quantity after SLM : 2 tons/ha
Comments/ specify : Increase in organic matter from surface accumulation
production area (new land under cultivation/ use) : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before farmer lossed a lot of surface due to the water channels in the cultivation area; after wood log barriers has been constructed runoff stopped, and surface area increased by soil accumulation
farm income : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously water flow on the production area caused damages to crops and in consequence reduced crop yield
workload : -1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Installing wood log barriers to extend the cultivation area requires more labour
food security/ self-sufficiency : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Food security has been improved because the farmer get more yield and can sale the surplus even in the local market
surface runoff : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The water and top soil run-off is slowed down when reaching the log barrier and the water is directed on either side. Thus, heavy surface runoff is stopped efficiently.
soil loss : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before a lot of top soil by water leaching on the soil surface was lost. After the installation of the wooden log barrier water way changed and spread sediments to the area and reduced accumulation in the road canal
biomass/ above ground C : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Wooden log barriers can spread biomass and plant fragment and sediment to production area (increase topsoil)
landslides/ debris flows : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before heavy rains caused soil erosion (rill or sheet erosion between row) in rainy season
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
damage on neighbours' fields : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Before water way flow through owners land. After the installation of the technology the water way was changed to neighborhoodt without causing damages there.
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
Specify : Sediment run-off into the road canal
[Label left] :
[Label left] : decrease
[Measure] :
[Measure] : -1
[Label right] :
[Label right] : increase
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Before the sediments from the rill erosion went directly into the road canal. After wood logs installation sedement remained mostly on the field
Comments regarding impact assessment :
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : wet/ rainy season
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : very well
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
Season : wet/ rainy season
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
Short-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
Long-term returns : slightly positive,
Short-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
Long-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 1-10%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 90-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Reduce sediment run-off
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increased organic matters on soil surface (create thicker soil layer)
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Low cost for implementation
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Better distribution of nutrients on agricultural lands.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Most of these facilities are not permanent and vulnerable which require repair every year
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Some sediment accumulation are still caused by remaining run-off sites
How can they be overcome? : It may require better rope quality and concrete posts.
How can they be overcome? : must create many point of barrier
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : People still use available local materials which affects the quality of the water run-off facility as well as its effectiveness.
How can they be overcome? : It may require installation of this kind of facility in many sites along the same channel depending on slope of the land.

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 place
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 person