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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Dry season rice along flat areas on both sides of the stream banks
Further comments
Date 17/05/2017
Location Saneng village, TaOuy district of Salavan province
Name of photographer Bounthanom Bouahom
Name of photographer

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Dry season rice on flat areas of stream banks
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Salavan province
Further specification of location : Taouy district

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person : SLM specialist,
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname :
Lastname / surname :
First name(s) : ອໍ່າເລື່ອມ
First name(s) : Theppadith
Gender : male,
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Name of institution : Taouy District of Agriculture and Forestry Office
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Dry season rice cultivation on flat areas of stream banks aiming towards replacement of harmful shifting cultivation practices in the upland areas and to improve livelihoods.
Description : Technique on dry season rice cultivation on the banks of stream has been initiated by a Project of Oxfam Australia. Previously, the slash and burn agriculture was a main livelihood activity of local land users in mountainous areas and they had no experience regarding the cultivation of lowland rice. This, in fact, affected food insecurity among the local communities with limited arable land whilst population growth and increasing land pressure in the hill area. As a result, a Project supported by Oxfarm Australia that has been working in Ta Oy District since 1996 with the aim to reduce encroachment of isolated areas in natural forests. The Project e.g. has established the Natural Disaster Management Committee at village level. The project played an important role in providing options regarding permanent livelihood activities for local communities. Dry season rice cultivation along banks of streams was one of the potential alternatives for livelihood improvement particularly to ensure food security and to reduce the workload. At the beginning, the Project provided training to the local land users on how to use buffalos for ploughing as they never used this approach before. The Project also provided rice seedlings, agricultural tools (hoes and shovels) for the land preparation. During the first phase of the Project, there were only few households interested to participate as they were afraid that it would impose negative impacts on local culture and tradition. This because the land users believed that rice cultivation has only to grow in higher land areas and rice stems should not be soaked in water. Nevertheless, there were a number of households who decided to participate in the trial phase of the Project anyway. The Project encouraged them to contribute labour for the whole rice paddy development process and mainly also to support the excavation needed for the land preparation along the streams. Areas suitable to this technology should be on relatively flat land at similar level to the stream which allows simplified access to water. Usually, the land users start land preparation on December to January during the dry season. Before dry season, the land gets flooded every year and in consequence brings fertile deposits to the soils. Later, many land users expressed their interest to implement dry season rice cultivation on the river banks. As a result, village residents have expanded rice paddies wherever suitable. These terrains include stream areas very near to the village. Finally the land users got very happy to have own their paddies so near to the village. Inappropriate beliefs have been gradually eradicated prior to cultivate now lowland rice. Actually, households have more rice for household consumption although it may be insufficient for all year round. This means that many land users still need to cultivate additional areas in the uplands due to limited land in the lowlands. But the general purposes of reducing significantly the swidden agriculture in the uplands and also to decrease labour for these activities has been achieved anyway. In addition, the land users could benefit from increased animal fodder in the form of rice straw during dry season and the rice straw for soil cover in the vegetable gardens to retain soil moisture. Moreover, people from neighbouring villages also learnt from this initiative and implemented it in their villages too.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : Rice planting on flat area (land preparation by manual labour
Caption, explanation of photo : Rice plantation in flat area after flood along stream banks
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 17/05/2017
Date :
Location : Saneng village, Taouy district of Salavan province
Location :
Name of photographer : Bounthanom Bouahom
Name of photographer : Phonesiri Phanvongsa
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Salavan province
Further specification of location : Taouy district
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : 2-10 sites,
Indicate year of implementation :
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : 10-50 years ago,
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through projects/ external interventions,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) : The Oxfarm Australia Project

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts, create beneficial social impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland,
Land use type : Annual cropping,
other (specify) :
Annual cropping - Specify crops : cereals - rice (wetland),
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Annual cropping system : null
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify :
Is intercropping practiced? : null
If yes, specify which crops are intercropped :
Is crop rotation practiced? : null
If yes, specify :
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
SLM group : area closure (stop use, support restoration), water harvesting,
other (specify) :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Taouy District of Agriculture and Forestry Office's team
Date : 11/08/2017
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : 0,7
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha = : Hectare
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : LAK
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50000
Activity : Flattening of soil bank terrain
Timing (season) : December to January
Specify input : Labour for flattening (not paid)
Unit : person day
Quantity : 60
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 3000000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Hoe
Specify input : Shovel
Specify input : Buffalo
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : head
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 7000000
Total costs per input : 60000
Total costs per input : 40000
Total costs per input : 7000000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 10100000
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD : 1262.5
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs : The Oxfarm Australia support 1 buffalo per household
Comments :
Activity : Labour for ploughing
Activity : Seedling preparation
Activity : Transplantation of the rice seedlings
Activity : Rice harvesting
Timing/ frequency : December to January
Timing/ frequency : End of January
Timing/ frequency : One month after seeding
Timing/ frequency : May
Specify input : Labour for seedling preparation
Specify input : Labour for transplanting
Specify input : Labour for harvesting
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 14
Quantity : 14
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 100000
Total costs per input : 700000
Total costs per input : 700000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Seed of rice
Unit : kg
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 4000
Total costs per input : 40000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 1540000
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD : 192.5
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : The preparation of the land takes lot of time and require more labour.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 751-1,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm :
Specifications/ comments on rainfall :
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered :
Agro-climatic zone : sub-humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : gentle (3-5%),
Landforms : valley floors,
Altitudinal zone : 101-500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : not relevant,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : deep (81-120 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : high (>3%),
Ground water table : on surface,
Availability of surface water : good,
Water quality (untreated) : for agricultural use only (irrigation),
Water quality refers to: :
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : Yes
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : subsistence (self-supply),
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work, animal traction,
Gender : men,
Age of land users : elderly,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 1-2 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : medium-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system? : null
Specify :
health : moderate
education : moderate
technical assistance : good
employment (e.g. off-farm) : moderate
markets : moderate
energy : moderate
roads and transport : good
drinking water and sanitation : moderate
financial services : moderate

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 1
Quantity before SLM : 500 kg/ha
Quantity after SLM : 1200 kg/0.7 ha
Comments/ specify :
fodder production : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The rice straw can be used for livestock especially for cattle after rice harvest in dry season
animal production : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The better fodder situation (rice straw) improved the animal production.
risk of production failure : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The paddy field activity decreased risk of production failure as it get higher yield compare to upland rice cultivation.
product diversity : 3
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The land users can have lowland rice, diversify the vegetable by getting rice straw to mulch the vegetable plot, and they can get fish from their paddy fields.
production area (new land under cultivation/ use) : -1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The upland production area decreased and is compensated only partly in the low lands (river banks)
land management : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
expenses on agricultural inputs : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The Oxfarm Australia Project provide one buffalo for land users and they use the traditional seedling variety each year.
workload : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Decreased workload as it is not labour intensive activity compare with upland rice activity.
food security/ self-sufficiency : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase rice production for home consumption.
cultural opportunities (eg spiritual, aesthetic, others) : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Improve the land users believe that rice should not cultivate or soaked in water
recreational opportunities : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The land user can take a rest along to the paddy field where peaceful and good environment.
SLM/ land degradation knowledge : 3
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The land users were able to generate better rice yield by simultaneous reduction of unsustainable slash and burn cultivation.
conflict mitigation : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Improve conflict mitigation from slash and burn shifting cultivation.
plant diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increased the number of plant diversity in the river
habitat diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increased habitat diversity of aquaculture
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
impact of greenhouse gases : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Decreasing emission of carbon and greenhouse gases by reduction of bush fires in the region due to the technology.
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements) :
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
Season : wet/ rainy season
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
Short-term returns : positive,
Long-term returns : positive,
Short-term returns : positive,
Long-term returns : positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : > 50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 11-50%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Reduction of slash and burn cultivation areas through allocation of permanent agriculture land for local villagers.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increased food security for households.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Change local belief and perceptions who never cultivated lowland rice and didn’t want to cultivate rice in flooded land.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The land user can use rice straws for animal fodder particularly during dry season due to limited natural grass for livestock. Besides this, rice straw provides a number of benefits including the use to cover on vegetable plots to retain soil moisture.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Reduce time and workload in relation to the paddy field is close to the village.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Insufficient suitable land availability along streams for lowland rice paddy.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Rice yields from dry season remain low due to issues with land availability thereby rice shortages persist within some households.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Pest outbreaks, including aphids, grasshoppers, birds, and rats.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : The local land users lack of technical skills for dry season rice cultivation.
How can they be overcome? : Use the excavator for extend larger areas where possible.
How can they be overcome? :
How can they be overcome? :
How can they be overcome? : Training by agriculture experts

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 17/05/2017
Comments :