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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Local dyke
Further comments
Date 11/05/2017
Location Tangnong village, Dakchaung district, Sekong province
Name of photographer Khampheng Bounyavong
Name of photographer 52,59

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Local indigenous dyke for water harvesting
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Tangnong village, Dakchaung district, Sekong province
Further specification of location :

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person : SLM specialist,
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname :
Lastname / surname : Sekhamphone
Lastname / surname :
First name(s) : Sengmany
First name(s) : Yangmao
First name(s) :
Gender : male,
Gender : male,
Gender :
Name of institution :
Name of institution :
Name of institution :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : United States Minor Outlying Islands

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : A Local Indigenous Weir to Harness Water
Description : Local villagers initiated the construction and use of communal weir with locally available materials such as wood and stones to create structure and stabilize the weir. Previously, the local people had constructed several irrigation weirs on a particular stream with each one being adjacent to an individual farm. However this arrangement created water use conflicts, particularly during dry season. Therefore people decided to group together in 2003 in order to build a communal weir and vowed to maintain it on an annual basis. This was a significant commitment as often it is difficult to find the necessary construction materials for the weir’s upkeep. The main features and components of its framework should be prepared in the following manner: Firstly prior to beginning the weir’s construction one should gather rattan with length of 1-1.5 meters to tie the logs with each posts, as well as post with a diameter approximately 10 cm that should be cut to a length of 1.5 meters. The posts should then be sharpened at the end so that they can ideally be driven 50 cm into the ground, but this will depend on the conditions at the weir site. There should be a distance of 50 cm between each of the posts and these should be installed in two parallel rows with a space of 1 meter between the rows each rows width 1 meters and height 1 meter from the ground that cross the stream about 25 meters long. Once this has been completed logs with diameter about 20 cm and a length of 4-5 meters should be slotted behind the rows posts and lay the another logs on the previous post until reach to the top of the post as the first layer. The second layer behind the logs should consist of small stones, soil, as well as branches and sticks. This procedure should be completed until the wall of horizontal logs has reached the height 1 meter of the top of the posts. Afterwards large stones should be placed as the top layer of the weir’s crest in order to strengthening the weir from flash flood. After that continue repeating the same process for the second row, driven the posts into the ground for 50 cm in front of the first row with distance of 1 meter and lower than first low for 50 cm, slotted behind the rows posts as the first layer. The second layer behind the logs (in front of the first row) consist small stones, soil, branch and sticks. Finally install large stones on the ground in front of the second row in order to strengthening and prevent leakages at bottom of the weir until reaching the required height. For instance, install the first row, then the second row is installed same as the first row in which the height of the second row is lower than the first row about 50 cm, and install large stones on ground of the third row to prevent leakages at bottom of the weir. The main purpose of the weir is to provide an adequate water supply for agricultural activities in communal areas. Some households have also installed a dynamo (electric generator) with a production capacity of 1 Kwh. It should be noted that it is important to maintain the weir by regularly replacing the logs and adding more stones as required. One of the benefits of the weir is the ability to carry out agricultural activities in both the rainy and dry seasons. Furthermore water can be used for household gardening and the generation of electricity with the installation of a small dynamo where a channel with fast running water has been created. However, the weir does also have some drawbacks such as the significant numbers of logs that are required to firstly build and then maintain the weir annually. Therefore some land owners or land users may not choose this scheme due to these regular maintenance requirements with the need for logs which are declining in numbers and becoming increasingly difficult to source. At the same time this requirement may also affect forest resources and places time pressure on people to conduct the maintenance.
     
Caption, explanation of photo : The small dynamo installation in the dyke for community
Caption, explanation of photo : The canal from the main dyke to the irrigated rice field
Caption, explanation of photo :
Further comments :
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 11/05/2017
Date : 11/05/2017
Date : 11/05/2017
Location : Tangnong village, Dakchaung district, Sekong province
Location : Tangnong village, Dakchaung district, Sekong province
Location : Tangnong village, Dakchaung district, Sekong province
Name of photographer : Khampheng Bounyavong
Name of photographer : Khampheng Bounyavong
Name of photographer : phonesyli phanvongsa
Vimeo ID :
Comments, short description :
Date :
Location :
Name of videographer :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Tangnong village, Dakchaung district, Sekong province
Further specification of location :
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : 2-10 sites,
Comments : There are 2 dykes on that stream
Indicate year of implementation : 2003
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : 10-50 years ago,
Specify how the Technology was introduced : as part of a traditional system (> 50 years),
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, reduce risk of disasters, adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland, Waterways, waterbodies, wetlands, assets/img/pictos/land_waterways.png, , tech_lu_waterways,
Land use type : Annual cropping,
other (specify) :
Annual cropping - Specify crops : cereals - rice (wetland), vegetables - other,
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Annual cropping system : null
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify : paddy rice is the main product
Is intercropping practiced? : null
If yes, specify which crops are intercropped :
Is crop rotation practiced? : null
If yes, specify :
Land use type : Ponds, dams,
other (specify) :
Main products/ services : paddy rice, electric generation
Comments :
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : full irrigation,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
SLM group : water harvesting, energy efficiency technologies, ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction,
other (specify) :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : reduce land degradation,
Comments : Sediments are leached from the mountain areas flow down to the stream ant therefrore the water contains organic matter that is beneficial for crops.

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Khampheng Bounyavong
Date : 12/05/2017
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology unit,
Specify unit : one dam
Specify dimensions of unit (if relevant) : width 1m, height 1m, depth 50 cm in the ground, length 25 m cross the steam
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : Kip
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50 000 kip
Activity : Find dead wood logs
Activity : Collect and prepare the rattan to tighten the wood
Activity : Collect the stones and rocks
Activity : Dyke installation
Timing (season) :
Timing (season) :
Timing (season) :
Timing (season) :
Comments :
Specify input : Labour
Unit : person
Quantity : 48
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 2400000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Hummer
Specify input : Axes
Specify input : Hoe
Specify input : Shovel
Specify input : Knife
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 4
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 15
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 150000
Costs per Unit : 100000
Costs per Unit : 40000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 25000
Total costs per input : 600000
Total costs per input : 1000000
Total costs per input : 600000
Total costs per input : 500000
Total costs per input : 250000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Wood logs
Specify input : Rattan
Specify input : Stones
Specify input : Wood post
Unit : piece
Unit : line
Unit : m3
Unit : piece
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 200
Quantity : 50
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 40000
Costs per Unit : 10000
Total costs per input : 500000
Total costs per input : 4000000
Total costs per input : 2000000
Total costs per input : 100000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 11950000
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD : 1493.75
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs :
Comments :
Activity : Find the wood logs to repair the dikes
Activity : Prepare the rattan to refix the logs with the posts
Activity : Collect the stones to imrove the stabilize the dikes
Activity : Repair the dike
Timing/ frequency :
Timing/ frequency :
Timing/ frequency :
Timing/ frequency :
Comments : Each year, people from the local community have to maintain and repair the dikes.
Specify input : Labor
Unit : person
Quantity : 48
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 2400000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Wood logs
Specify input : Rattan
Specify input : Stones
Specify input : Wood post
Unit : piece
Unit : line
Unit : m3
Unit : piece
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 200
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 10000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 10000
Total costs per input : 500000
Total costs per input : 2000000
Total costs per input : 500000
Total costs per input : 100000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 5500000
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD : 687.5
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : The labour for collecting the wood logs and the labour for the construction of the dike.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 2,001-3,000 mm, 3,001-4,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 870
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : The driest month is January, with 14 mm of rainfall. In July, the precipitation reaches its peak. Heavy rain is between July-September. Total rain fall is about 3200 mm/year
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Natural resource office
Agro-climatic zone : humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate : The warmest month of the year is May, with an average temperature of 22.3 °C. With16.6 °C on average, January is the coldest month of the year.
Slopes on average : rolling (11-15%), hilly (16-30%),
Landforms : hill slopes, footslopes,
Altitudinal zone : 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : convex situations,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : moderately deep (51-80 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : coarse/ light (sandy),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : < 5 m,
Availability of surface water : medium,
Water quality (untreated) : for agricultural use only (irrigation),
Water quality refers to: :
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : subsistence (self-supply),
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : groups/ community,
Level of mechanization : mechanized/ motorized,
Gender : women, men,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 0.5-1 ha, 1-2 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : small-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : communal/ village, individual, not titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system? : null
Specify :
health : good
education : good
technical assistance : good
employment (e.g. off-farm) : poor
markets : poor
energy : moderate
roads and transport : poor
drinking water and sanitation : moderate
financial services : poor

5. Impacts and concluding statements

crop quality : -2
Quantity before SLM : 8 tons/ha
Quantity after SLM : 2 tons/ha
Comments/ specify : Before gold mining company entered in the area the yield of rice raised to 8 tons/ha due to the aboundant irrigation water caused by the dike construction. But unfortunately actually (in 2017), due to gold excavating rice yield decreased to 2 tons/ha, only.
energy generation (e.g. hydro, bio) : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Some households also install dynamo ( electric generator ) with production capacity of 1 Kwh.
irrigation water availability : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before, water for cultivation was insufficient especially during dry season as the stream water level was too low , after the weir construction the stream water level got high enough to fill the canal leading to the production area all-year round.
conflict mitigation : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before dyke construction the villagers tried to bring water to their fields by small individual canals during dry season. This caused competition and conflicts on scares water scarcity. After the communal wire construction the conflicts situation have been been improved.
water quantity : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Without dikes, the stream water quantity was too low to produce enough yield mainly regardomg dry season cultivation. After weir construction the farmers let the water flow from the canal into the water reservoir which allows agricultural activities on a year-round basis.
drought impacts : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Even during dry season (and drought events) the farmers bring enough the water to the fields.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : The weir stopped to some extent the natural water flow. This causes slower but still regular downstream water flow during dry season.
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements) :
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : dry season
increase or decrease : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
Season : wet/ rainy season
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
other (specify) :
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : slightly positive,
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : slightly negative,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 11-50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 91-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Inputs are economically beneficial.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Provides a reliable water supply for agricultural activities.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Electricity can be generated with a small dynamo.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Mitigates water use conflicts which could occur in the village.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : It is only possible to construct a temporary weir due to the low quality of locally available materials
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : A great deal of time needs to be invested in annual maintenance work.
How can they be overcome? :
How can they be overcome? :

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 time
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 2 persons
When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 11/05/2017
Comments :