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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Bong tree plantation area
Further comments
Date 17/05/2017
Location Lavatai village, Samouy district, Salavan province
Name of photographer Jimmy Luangphithuck
Name of photographer 25,61

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Plantation of Yangbong (Persea kurzii) Trees on Slopes
Locally used name : ການປູກກະແລວແຮງ
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Samou y district, Salavan province
Further specification of location : Lavatai village

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname : Sailava
First name(s) : Konterp
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Address : Lavatai village, Samouy district, Salavan province
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Phone no. 1 : 030 4561123
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 2 :

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 17/05/2017
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

No data !

7. Reference to/ comparison with other Technologies

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Bong tree (Persea kurzii) plantation in slope area to increase forest canopy and to utilize the plantation areas for animal grazing such as cows and poultry.
Description : Bong tree (Persea kurzii), is a native tree species found in different regions in Lao PDR. In the past, farmers collected Bong barks from natural forest, as it contains gum and aromatic oils for the internationally very requested production of joss sticks. But the availability of wild Bong trees has been declining significantly. In order to keep this important source of income for farmers, Bong tree cultivation can be seen as valuable alternative to maintain the local livelihood whilst ensuring the preservation of the natural forests. The idea of commercial Bong tree plantation came from a Vietnamese trader (in 2000) who introduced Bong tree through a trial plantation. In 2006 land users who were experienced in the highly costly and labor-intensive coffee and pepper cultivation shifted to Bong tree cultivation. And in 2010, land users who gained lessons on seedling production and Bong tree cultivation from Vietnam established first trial cultivations on their farms. Later an IFAD Project in collaboration with the Samouey District Agriculture and Forestry Office promoted Bong tree plantation by providing organic fertilizer and advisory support to model households of the Samouey District . Due to the easy handling and the potential benefits a number of farmers have been interested to participate. Bong trees are perennial and fast growing plants (first harvest of bark or log 6-7 years after planting) preferring humid climate and can be easily planted also on sloping terrain. Currently, Bong tree covers approximately 38 ha of land with an average increase of 1-2 ha/year. This land belongs to Mr. Sailava at Samoey district. The detailed method of Bong tree plantation is following: 1)Land preparation: first, it requires land clearance by removing weeds and bushes, along with hole digging in advance of rainy season (July to September); 2)Spacing: the appropriate spacing between the tree plants should measure about 2.5 x 2.5 meters. Staking is required throughout the plantation area before the holes can be dug. The planting holes are 25 cm x 25cm. The excavated topsoil should be stockpiled around the holes for refilling them later; 3)Planting and applying fertilizers: Bong seedlings need organic fertilizer (0.5kg/tree) that is mixed with soil and then filled in the holes. Finally the seedlings are gently placed in the holes by filling up with further topsoil. If the seedlings are tall, staking is required. 4)Maintenance: 2-3 months after planting ‒ only in case it is needed ‒ additional fertilizer will be added and/or weeding is carried out. The plant residues from weeding are used to cover the ground around the seedlings to keep soil moisture, and once decomposed, to provide natural organic matters to the soil. In conditions of dry climate and hard soil, watering is required to prevent soil cracking which is a cause of breaking tree’s roots and subsequently trees will die. The advantages of planting Bong trees include direct income generation for households as well as increased forest canopy. It minimize the carbon emissions of slash-and-burn land use. The falling Bong tree leaves provide organic matters to soils, help retaining soil moisture and subsequently increase soil fertility. Under-story vegetation includes lianas and grasses that provide fodder for livestock. Three years after plantation, the land users can utilize the area for animal grazing such as cows and poultry. In fact, poultry can find earthworms around Bong trees which provide rich nutrition for animals. However, some disadvantages of planting Bong trees have to be mentioned as well: Some plantations may become shrubs where weeding is not conducted regularly. Poor maintenance provokes invasion of snakes, bees, and mosquitos.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : The land user shows how to prepare the hole before planting the Bong tree seedling.
Caption, explanation of photo : Bong tree plantation area (5 years old)
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 17/05/2017
Date : 17/05/2017
Location : Lavatai village, Samou y district, Salavan province
Location : Lavatai village, Samou y district, Salavan province
Name of photographer : Pasalath Khounsy
Name of photographer : jimmy Luangphithuck
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Samou y district, Salavan province
Further specification of location : Lavatai village
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : 2-10 sites,
Indicate year of implementation : 2010
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through projects/ external interventions,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) : IFAD project in collaboration with Samouy District of Agriculture and Forestry Office

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, create beneficial economic impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Forest/ woodlands, assets/img/pictos/land_7.png, , tech_lu_forest,
(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands : Shifting cultivation,
Tree plantation, afforestation : Monoculture local variety,
other (specify) :
Products and services : Grazing/ browsing,
other (specify) : construction material (house, fence and furniture)
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify :
Livestock density (if relevant) : 15 cows
SLM group : agroforestry, pastoralism and grazing land management, integrated soil fertility management,
other (specify) :
Specify the spread of the Technology : evenly spread over an area,
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered : 0.1-1 km2,
Comments :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation, reduce land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Jimmy Luangphithuck
Date : 17/05/2017
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing) :
The holes for Bong tree seedlings are 20 cm in depth, 25 cm in width and 25 cm in length The spaceace between plants is 2.5 x 2.5 m Slope angle in that area is between 16 - 30 % Density of plants is about 1600 plants/ha
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : 1 ha
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare :
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : kip
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 30,000
Activity : Bong tree nursery
Activity : Land preparation
Activity : Dig the hole
Activity : Use bio fertilizer
Activity : Planting
Activity : Weeding in first 3 years
Activity : Weeding after year 4-6
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Management
Timing : November-Febuary
Timing : January-February
Timing : July-August
Timing : August-September
Timing : August-September
Timing : August-September and January-February
Timing : August-September
Specify input : labor for hole digging
Specify input : labor for planting
Specify input : labor for cleaning
Unit : hole
Unit : hole
Unit : person-day
Quantity : 1600
Quantity : 1600
Quantity : 60
Costs per Unit : 500
Costs per Unit : 1000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 800000
Total costs per input : 1600000
Total costs per input : 1800000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : knife
Specify input : hoe
Specify input : shovel
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 20
Quantity : 20
Quantity : 20
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Total costs per input : 400000
Total costs per input : 700000
Total costs per input : 700000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Bong tree seedlings
Unit : tree
Quantity : 1600
Costs per Unit : 1000
Total costs per input : 1600000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 7600000
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs :
Comments : The quantity of hole digging, planting and seedlings mention above is for 1 ha. That mean in 38 ha the farmer will have 1600 hole x 38 ha = 60,800 holes, plantings and seedlings So labor for hole digging cost in 38 ha is 500 x 60,800= 30,400,000 kip Labor for planting cost in 38 ha is 1000 x 60,800= 60,800,000 kip and Bong tree seedlings cost in 38 ha is 1000 x 60,800= 60,800,000 kip
Activity : maintenance (weeding)
Activity : timber harvesting
Activity : bark collection
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Vegetative
Timing/ frequency : January and August each year
Timing/ frequency :
Timing/ frequency :
Specify input : labor for weeding
Specify input : labor for timber harvesting
Specify input : labor for bark collection
Unit : person
Unit : person
Unit : person
Quantity : 60
Quantity :
Quantity :
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit :
Costs per Unit :
Total costs per input : 1800000
Total costs per input :
Total costs per input :
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Bio fertilizers
Unit : bag
Quantity : 1000
Costs per Unit : 15000
Total costs per input : 15000000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 16800000
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs : The Bio Fertilizer has been provided by the project.
Comments :
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : Labour is an important factor especially for larger plantation areas that require more labour for maintenance

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 2,001-3,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm :
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : There is significant rainfall in most months of the year. The short dry season has little effect on the overall climate.
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : https://en.climate-data.org/location/1063801/
Agro-climatic zone : humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : hilly (16-30%), steep (31-60%),
Landforms : mountain slopes, hill slopes,
Altitudinal zone : 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : not relevant,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : shallow (21-50 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : 5-50 m,
Availability of surface water : good,
Water quality (untreated) : unusable,
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : mixed (subsistence/ commercial,
Off-farm income : 10-50% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work, mechanized/ motorized,
Gender : women, men,
Age of land users : middle-aged, elderly,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 15-50 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : large-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
health : moderate
education : poor
technical assistance : poor
employment (e.g. off-farm) : good
markets : good
energy : moderate
roads and transport : moderate
drinking water and sanitation : poor
financial services : moderate

5. Impacts and concluding statements

animal production : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before the husbandry area was very limited in the forest. After active expansion of the Bong tree area by the mean of plantation, livestock got an ideal area for grazing and thus, the land user was able to enlarge his herd.
wood production : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before Bong tree plantation the farmer collected wood and bark of Bong trees in the natural fores. After he planted Bong trees actively on his forest land he was able to increase the wood and bark production for construction purposes.
farm income : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before, the farmer collected Bong tree material in the natural forest for selling. But the availability was very limited. Therefore, the cultivation of Bong trees brought better income.
workload : -1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Workload of the land user increased significantly due to the large area of bong tree plantation (38 ha).
conflict mitigation : -2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Because some people cut his trees and steal the wood.
soil loss : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The Bong tree has an expansive root system that is effective in binding the soil on slopes, and so, this reduces and prevents soil erosion.
nutrient cycling/ recharge : 3
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The grass growing naturally in the Bong tree area can be eaten by the livestock. The excrements of the animals mixed with the leaves of the Bong trees, serve as ideal manure for plants (Bong tree and grass ).
fire risk : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The land user transformed the land from shifting cultivation by traditional method of slash and burn to a stable plantation area. The method of shifting cultivation is the main cause for fires in the local forests.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
impact of greenhouse gases : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Reducing of shifting cultivation and subsequently less fires/improved forest cover and subsequently higher area for carbon sequestration
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments regarding impact assessment :
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Short-term returns : very negative,
Long-term returns : very positive,
Short-term returns : negative,
Long-term returns : positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 10-50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 10-50%,
Comments : IFAD Project in collaboration with the Samouey District Agriculture and Forestry Office promoted Bong tree plantation by providing organic fertilizer and advisory support to model households of the Samouey District .
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Acts as a counterbalance to slash and burn agriculture
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Once the trees have been planted it facilitates the raising of livestock such as cattle and poultry and therefore reduces the workload involved in such farming activities
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : The plantation of bong trees further diversifies the sources of household income.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The Bong tree has an expansive root system that is effective in binding the soil on slopes, and this reduces and prevents soil erosion.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : It reduces the loss of top soil during prolonged precipitation.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Due to the large area that is under the cultivation of Bong trees it makes it difficult to control and maintain the plantation.
How can they be overcome? :

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 time
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 2 person