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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Coffee cultivation with the trees in a fallow area
Further comments
Date 17/05/2017
Location Chalearnxay village Xanxay district of Attapue province
Name of photographer Bounthanom Bouahom
Name of photographer 51,94

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Coffee cultivation between big trees in sloping fallows
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapue province
Further specification of location : Xanxay district

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname :
First name(s) : Bouathong
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Address : Chalernxay village Xanxay district of Attapue province
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Phone no. 1 : 0309158758
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 2 :

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 17/05/2017
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

No data !

7. Reference to/ comparison with other Technologies

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Coffee plants cultivated between big trees in sloping fallows for income generation as well as maintaining biodiversity and increased forest cover.
Description : Since 1980 a number of villagers worked on coffee plantations in Paksong District, Bolaven Plateau of Champasack Province. Thus, they learnt how to cultivate coffee and brought their knowledge to their villages due to suitable natural conditions there. Temperature suitable for coffee there ranges from 15 – 25°C and pH levels of soils between 5.5 and 6.5, average rainfall between 1000-1500 mm/year, and altitude of approximately 800 m.a.s.l. Subsequently, small coffee plantations were observed all over the region, but failed soon because the villagers planted coffee intercropped with upland rice within their traditional extensive slash and burn practice. One of the reasons of very low coffee yields was the lacking shadow and the inconsistent humidity during dry season. In 2009, a project supported by IFAD promoted coffee cultivated between big trees as a trial to villagers in Paksong District. But the selection of “Mai Thorng” (Erythrina stricta Roxburgh) - a type of savannah tree that provides enough shade to coffee plants - unfortunately was not successful as well, as it was not adapted to the local climate. Therefore, in 2012, Mr. Bouathong in Chalurnxay village, Xanay district of Attapue province tried to use locally grown trees which provide adequate shade to the coffee plants. They started to clear carefully fallow fields from vegetation whilst preserving bigger trees (age of fallow 5- 10 years and older). This included most of the trees older than 5 years. The clearance has to be conducted in January by removing smaller trees and shrubs. However, it is important that the remaining trees do not create to excessive shadow, as coffee plant needs approximately 50-60 percent of sunlight to grow well. The space between the seedlings is 3 x 3 or 4 x 3 meters. The size of the planting holes is 50x50x50cm. Before planting of coffee seedlings organic manure has to be filled in the hole to improve soil fertility (5kg/hole). To establish such kind of coffee plantation following inputs are needed: coffee seedlings, sunlight protection sheets, watering pot, fork, plastic bags for the seedlings, and organic fertilizer. The most important input is the labour for selective clearance, land preparation, and fencing (around 5 to 10 workers for 1 ha). From the very beginning a wooden fence out of timber from previously cleared small trees has to be installed for getting protection against livestock damages. Also weeding (3-4 times a year) and thinning of tree branches is required. The decayed plant material can be used as soil cover to increase natural soil nutrients and to control storm water from run-off. Outcomes from this method indicated that coffee plants grow successfully with healthy stems and suckers, and dark green leaves. And coffee plant survival rate of 80 percent was far higher compared to the rate of only 50% in former plantations without trees. Three years after planting coffee plants produces coffee beans. Coffee now is playing an important role for the local land users regarding revenue generation. The coffee prices in mountainous areas of Xanxay District vary depending on species and range from 5,000 to 8000Kip/kg for fresh coffee beans; 12,000 to 16000Kip/kg for threshed coffee beans (average annual income 5,000,000Kip / household). Estimated production of fresh beans is between 4,000-5,000Kg/ha. Yields significantly increase compared to old plantations that provided only 500-800Kg/ha. Purpose and advantage of this technology include the use of fallow and degraded forest areas to the benefit of local land users such us improved land use rights and reduction of land conflicts because of stabilization of shifting cultivation. People are required to find animal manure to fertilize the coffee plant, but they can also use coffee bean husk as green compost around the coffee plant, as this promotes soil nutrients, soil organisms (e.g. earthworms), and it keeps soil moisture and increases soil porosity. Benefits of this agroforestry that reduction of slash and burn practice. The coffee cultivation in a agroforsestry system as permanent land use practices reduces pressure on forest land, increases the forest canopy, preserve bigger trees as habitat for local animals, and promotes higher plant diversity. Furthermore, people can collect local mushrooms and other edible plants/vegetables such as Phak Varn, Phak Koum, rattan shoots, ferns, and others.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : Coffee cultivation with big trees to prevent coffee plants from too much of sunlight (age of trees more than 10 years)
Caption, explanation of photo : Land preparation technique of clearance from bushes and shrubs.
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 12/05/2017
Date : 12/05/2017
Location : Xanxay district of Attapue province
Location : Xanxay district of Attapue province
Name of photographer : Bounthanom Bouahom
Name of photographer : Bounthanom Bouahom
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapue province
Further specification of location : Xanxay district
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : 2-10 sites,
Indicate year of implementation : 2012
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through land users' innovation, through projects/ external interventions,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, conserve ecosystem, preserve/ improve biodiversity, create beneficial economic impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland, Forest/ woodlands, assets/img/pictos/land_7.png, , tech_lu_forest,
Land use type : Tree and shrub cropping,
other (specify) :
Main crops (cash and food crops) :
(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands : Selective felling,
Tree plantation, afforestation :
other (specify) :
Products and services :
other (specify) :
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify :
Livestock density (if relevant) :
SLM group : agroforestry,
other (specify) :
Specify the spread of the Technology : evenly spread over an area,
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered : < 0.1 km2 (10 ha),
Comments :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Vongsackda Khounyasay
Date : 20/05/2017
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing) :
1. First, the local land users need to select sites in fallow forest areas where big trees still remain through observation on the land use history. The old fallow forest may range from 5-10 years and above. Clear first the shrubs and bushes and retain approximately 50% of the vegetation. 2. The vegetation clearance can begin with removing small trees (wherever easy to start with) and preserve some of the big trees (5 years old and over). 3. After clearing all small trees, observe the bigger trees with approximate 5-10m height whether it requires thinning and further clearance around the retention trees to allow some sunlight reaching coffee plants understory. 4. It is not necessary to burn spoiled vegetation after clearance. Instead, suitable logs shall be used for fence construction whilst other grasses and weeds can be used to cover grounds for soil improvement. 5. After completion of vegetation clearance and land preparation, farmers can plant coffees seedlings appropriate to site conditions. 6. Weeding is required for coffee plantation and about 3 – 4 times a year until coffee seedlings are mature (weeding may not require after third years of planting). Farmers also need to conduct regular thinning of big trees to ensure sunlight reaches the coffee plants. 7. After completion of each weeding and thinning activities, farmers are recommended to collect decaying vegetation to cover the ground of coffee plantation as a mean to increase natural soil nutrients and control storm water run-off.
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : 1,5
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare : Hactare
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : LAK
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 20000
Activity : Seedling preparation
Activity : Nursery preparation for seedlings, fencing, net and other inputs for seedlings
Activity : Seedling maintenance
Activity : Land preparation for planting
Activity : Dig hole
Activity : Planting
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Structural
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Agronomic
Timing : Begining of November
Timing : November to December
Timing :
Timing :
Timing :
Timing :
Specify input : Labour for selective clearing of fallow and land preparation
Specify input : Labour for seedlings preparation
Specify input : Labour for putting soil and seedlings into plastic bag
Specify input : Labour for fencing
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 18
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 32
Quantity : 16
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Total costs per input : 360000
Total costs per input : 20000
Total costs per input : 640000
Total costs per input : 320000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Big knief
Specify input : Shovel
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 4
Quantity : 4
Costs per Unit : 15000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 60000
Total costs per input : 200000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Seedlings
Unit : seed
Quantity : 30
Costs per Unit : 1000
Total costs per input : 30000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Manure
Unit : kg
Quantity : 50
Costs per Unit : 5000
Total costs per input : 250000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Sunlight protection sheet
Specify input : Plastic bag for seed
Unit : Metre
Unit : bag
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 100
Costs per Unit : 10000
Costs per Unit : 500
Total costs per input : 100000
Total costs per input : 50000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Labour for planting the seedlings
Unit : person day
Quantity : 12
Costs per Unit : 20000
Total costs per input : 240000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 2270000
Activity : Weeding
Activity : Maintenance the fence
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Structural
Timing/ frequency : 2-3 time/year
Timing/ frequency :
Specify input : Labour for weeding
Specify input : Labour for maintenance of the fence
Specify input : Labour for bring the manure
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 4
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Total costs per input : 60000
Total costs per input : 80000
Total costs per input : 40000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 180000
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : The most important factor affecting cost is labour for selective clearance.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 1,001-1,500 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm :
Specifications/ comments on rainfall :
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered :
Agro-climatic zone : sub-humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : hilly (16-30%),
Landforms : hill slopes,
Altitudinal zone : 501-1,000 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : not relevant,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : deep (81-120 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : 5-50 m,
Availability of surface water : medium,
Water quality (untreated) : poor drinking water (treatment required),
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : commercial/ market,
Off-farm income : 10-50% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : men,
Age of land users : middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 5-15 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : large-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
health : moderate
education : moderate
technical assistance : moderate
employment (e.g. off-farm) : poor
markets : poor
energy : poor
roads and transport : poor
drinking water and sanitation : poor
financial services : poor

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 3
Quantity before SLM : Coffee production 500-800 kg/ha
Quantity after SLM : Coffee production 4000-5000 kg/ha
Comments/ specify :
crop quality : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increased both productivity and quality
forest/ woodland quality : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Under former slash and burn technique the whole vegetation was cleared, now big trees are saved and forest cover has been improved.
non-wood forest production : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Apart from coffee beans, now mushrooms, Phak Varn, Phak Koum, rattan shoots, ferns are available in the agroforestry area.
farm income : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increased income from coffee (5 million LAK/year).
workload : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Decreased labour due to reduction of shifting cultivation.
land use/ water rights : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Under this technique the land user own the plantation area legally.
conflict mitigation : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Reduction of land conflict because of stabilize shifting cultivation legalization of land use rights.
soil moisture : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The land user uses the dry grase/leaves for mulching to improve soil moisture.
soil compaction : null
Quantity before SLM : ຖາງປ່າເຮັດໄຮ່ ແບບໝູນວຽນ ໄລຍະອາຍຸ ຂອງປ່າເລົ່າສັ້ນ
Quantity after SLM : ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ ການຖາງ ປ່າເຮັດໄຮ່ ແບບເລື່ອນລອຍ
Comments/ specify :
vegetation cover : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase in tree canopy as well as increase in forest cover.
plant diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase of local mushroom and wide vegetables for food consumption.
emission of carbon and greenhouse gases : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Due to the reduction in slash and burn cultivation, forest cover increased and in consequence, more greenhouse gases were assimilated and furthermore, the reduction in fires has decreased the emission of greenhouse gases.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
impact of greenhouse gases : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Due to the reduction in slash and burn cultivation, forest cover increased and in consequence, more greenhouse gases were assimilated and furthermore, the reduction in fires has decreased the emission of greenhouse gases.
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments regarding impact assessment :
Season : wet/ rainy season
Type of climatic change/ extreme : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : very well
Short-term returns : slightly negative,
Long-term returns : positive,
Short-term returns : slightly negative,
Long-term returns : positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : more than 50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 90-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Unnecessary to slash and burn clearance as bigger trees have to be retained.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : The coffee plantation can protect the environment and forest.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Farmers can sell their coffee that generate good household income.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Ecosystem sustainability and increased biodiversity.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Increase in forest cover and stabilization of shifting cultivation.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Reduced encroachment in agricultural lands of other local land users.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : The local land users still lack knowledge and skills to estimate necessary amount of retaining vegetation or big trees which is different to complete clearance and burning.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Some coffee plantations are not maintained effectively enough. This promote bush and shrub growth and in consequence impede harvest of coffee beans.
How can they be overcome? : The need to engage skilled labour to provide advice during land preparation.
How can they be overcome? : Therefore, the weeding requires intensive labours prior to coffee collection.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : There are no rules or standard operating procedures regarding the selective clearance and retention of vegetation and trees.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Most of the local land users select now land to grow coffee in slope areas where the land is limited.
How can they be overcome? : It needs advices from local expert who have skill to estimate on the number of trees to be maintained.
How can they be overcome? : It is most suitable if local land users can establish coffee plantation near streams due to fertile soil with suitable climate.

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1