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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Napier Grass cultivation area
Further comments
Date 13/06/2017
Location Tadseng village Sansay district, Attapue province
Name of photographer Latsamone Vongphosy
Name of photographer

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Conversion of rocky area to grazing area for livestock management
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapue province
Further specification of location : Tadseng village Sansay district

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person : SLM specialist,
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname : Keosymonkong
Lastname / surname : Chaluensunk
First name(s) : Khamthy
First name(s) : Amphone
Gender : male,
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Name of institution : District of Agriculture and Forest Office
Address : Tadseng village Sansay district Attapue province
Address : Dakkiet village Sansay district Attapue province
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Phone no. 1 : 020 99743368
Phone no. 1 : 030 4874017
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 2 :
E-mail 2 :

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 27/06/2017
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

No data !

7. Reference to/ comparison with other Technologies

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Forage and Livestock Management
Description : One of the main causes of land degradation in the Tadseng village (Sansay district, Lao PDR) is the flow of storm water that results in sediment run-off which leaves only rocks behind. It is estimated that approximately 20% of clay soils on the top soil have been washed away in recent years. In 2009 The Sustainable National Resources Management Product and Enhancement Project supported by Asia Development Bank (ADB) encouraged villagers to set up cow and forage farms. Ten cow breeding groups were established in the village. The cow farming group had used the communal land with a total 15 ha. After four years of implementation, some group members ignored their responsibilities and the group experienced a number of difficulties in both the management of the livestock and grass, which finally led to the collapse of the system. However, by 2014, one of the former members regained his interest in cow farming. He was able to rent the former 15 ha of land and he re-established the cow farm to a herd of 130 heads. At the beginning he only chose the healthiest stems of grass that remained from the old farm and replanted these. Three grass species were planted in rows on one area, namely Nepir, Guinea and Paspalum. It took thirty days to plow and prepare the land using a tractor and a labour force of more than fifty workers. For about five days, ten of these laborers had to remove the forage roots from the old fields. Generally, mid-May is the most suitable time to plant the grass as there is only a small amount of rain. Work begins by clearing the land and plowing the soil and then leaving it to dry for 15 days in order to get rid of some of the weeds and pests. During this period, some of the organic matter decays and develops into green compost which helps to improve the soil’s structure. This subsequently successfully regenerates the growth of the grass as its roots are able to easily expand throughout the soil. Whilst waiting for the soil to dry fences will be constructed around the plot. Then 40 tons of manure should be transported to the field using a two-wheel tractor. After, the manure has to be distributed and plowed into the soil. At the beginning of June grass can be planted by digging holes in rows, as to place the grass suckers into the ground at a depth of 5 cm. Irrigation is unnecessary as rain is expected in June. Optionally the farmer can use a gravity fed irrigation, if necessary. The forage can be harvested around 90 – 100 days after plantation. There are two options regarding the feeding of livestock: First option involves hired labourers to harvest the grass. The second option is to allow the livestock to graze freely in the field, 6 months after grass plantation. However, this can only be undertaken on a bi-weekly basis so as to allow the grass to regenerate. It is important to extract the weeds and apply organic fertilizer or green manure after the grass has been cut. Maintenance may also involve the repairing of fences. Advantages of this planting grass are the reduction of soil erosion and preventing nutrients from being washed out during heavy rains, as well as reducing soil compaction. Meanwhile the organic matter in the soil increases due to the decay of dead leaves of grass and roots. Further advantage is to grow up stronger and healthier cows. This also means that the farmers get higher household revenue from the sale of his livestock which on average amounts up to 80,000,000Kip/annum. Family members also have more time for other household activities because cows are released in the early morning and called back in late afternoon. However, one of the disadvantages could be a reduction in the local biodiversity such as edible insects and crickets. Furthermore the availability and variety of non-timber forest products declines such as Hed Amanita hemibapha, broom grass and rattan. Wildlife numbers have also reduced as people used to find and squirrels in this region. Another challenge may be that households have limited labour power to maintain fences and the forage fields, as it is relatively expensive to hire workers at 50,000 Kip/day. Difficulties in carrying out weeding include Nga Nam Keo. It should be noted that farmer make significant savings by not having to buy grass seeds as he can collect grass rhizomes from the old farm area.
 
Caption, explanation of photo : Grass cultivation area that shows the soil mixed with larger stones
Further comments :
Date : 02/07/2017
Location : Tadseng village, Sansay district, Attapue province
Name of photographer : Latsamone Vongphosy
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapue province
Further specification of location : Tadseng village Sansay district
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : single site,
Indicate year of implementation : 2011
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through land users' innovation, through projects/ external interventions,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) : First project intervention in 2009: Sustainable National Resources Management Product and Enhancement Project supported by Asia Development Bank (ADB). Later in 2014 after project failure, technology has been relaunched by private initiative of a village's land user.

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, create beneficial economic impact, create beneficial social impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Grazing land, assets/img/pictos/land_5.png, , tech_lu_grazingland,
Extensive grazing land : Ranching,
Intensive grazing/ fodder production : Improved pastures,
other (specify) :
Main animal species and products : Napir (Pennisetum purpureum), Guinea and Paspalum grass commonly known is a popular fodder crop for small scale dairy farming.
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : mixed rainfed-irrigated,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments : Water from catchment
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify : Nepir grass
Livestock density (if relevant) : 130 cows/15 ha
SLM group : pastoralism and grazing land management, improved ground/ vegetation cover,
other (specify) :
Specify the spread of the Technology : evenly spread over an area,
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered : 0.1-1 km2,
Comments :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land, adapt to land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Sinnalong Vongkhamdy
Date : 03/07/2017
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing) :
Density of plants is 37,000 plants/ha Planting area wide is 100 m, the length is 1500 m The grass stems should be planted at a distance of 50 cm from each other and there should be a distance of 80 cm between the rows. The land is in foot slop with slop about 3 - 5% Plant varieties in use are e.g. Napir, Guinea, Paspalum Growing period is 90 - 100 day before it can be cut. Around the plot a barbed wire has been installed fore livestock control and to prevent other animals from outside. The fence was 1.5 m high with 5 lines of barbed wire from the top of the posts to the surface. Further technical specifications: Land preparation involved the use of a tractor with 4,000 horse power engines. This grass cultivation technology is practiced around the foot slopes with an average gradient of 3-5%. Weeding and the application of fertilizer are required twice a year in May and December. The grass can be harvested around 90 – 100 days after it has been planted.
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : ha
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare : 15
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : kip
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50000
Activity : land estimation
Activity : land preparation
Activity : Planting
Activity : Fertilizing
Activity : Fencing
Type of measure : Other measures
Type of measure : Structural
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Structural
Timing : January-Febuary
Timing :
Timing :
Timing :
Timing :
If possible, break down the costs of establishment according to the following table, specifying inputs and costs per input. If you are unable to break down the costs, give an estimation of the total costs of establishing the Technology : 61878000
Specify input : planting labour
Specify input : fencing labour
Specify input : fertilizing labour
Unit : person-day
Unit : person-day
Unit : person
Quantity : 20
Quantity : 30
Quantity : 60
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 1000000
Total costs per input : 1500000
Total costs per input : 3000000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Hummer
Specify input : Draper Fence Wire Tensioning Tool
Specify input : Manure transfer by tractor
Specify input : Glass packing machine
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : trip
Unit : Machine
Quantity : 6
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 60
Quantity : 3
Costs per Unit : 35000
Costs per Unit : 170000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Costs per Unit : 1500000
Total costs per input : 210000
Total costs per input : 510000
Total costs per input : 2100000
Total costs per input : 4500000
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
Specify input : Paspalum seeds
Specify input : Guniea seeds (Megathyrsus maximus)
Specify input : Napier seeds (Pennisetum purpureum)
Unit : Kg
Unit : Kg
Unit : Kg
Quantity : 55
Quantity : 40
Quantity : 35
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 2750000
Total costs per input : 2000000
Total costs per input : 1750000
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
Specify input : Manure
Unit : ton
Quantity : 40
Costs per Unit : 200000
Total costs per input : 8000000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Nail
Specify input : Wire
Specify input : Post hole
Specify input : Fence post
Unit : box
Unit : roll
Unit : hole
Unit : piece
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 48
Quantity : 1600
Quantity : 1600
Costs per Unit : 80000
Costs per Unit : 250000
Costs per Unit : 10000
Costs per Unit : 3000
Total costs per input : 80000
Total costs per input : 12000000
Total costs per input : 16000000
Total costs per input : 4800000
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 60200000
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs : Equipment, plan material and construction material support by ADB project
Comments :
Activity : Fertilizing
Activity : Cutting the grass
Activity : Weeding
Activity : Fence repair
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Structural
Timing/ frequency : annually, each cultivating season
Timing/ frequency : during growing period
Timing/ frequency : after harvest
Timing/ frequency : after harvest
Comments : Annually maintenance
Specify input : Labor
Unit : person-day
Quantity : 50
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 1500000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Hoe
Unit : piece
Quantity : 25
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 750000
% of costs borne by land users :
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 2250000
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : The high cost for fencing and the construction material are the most important factors

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 2,001-3,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 2500
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : The driest month is January. There is 7 mm of precipitation in January. With an average of 501 mm, most of precipitation falls in June/August. Annual rainfall is 2300 mm
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Sanxai natural resource and environmental district office
Agro-climatic zone : sub-humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate : With an average of 28.4 °C May is the warmest month. January has the lowest average temperature of the year. It is 22.6 °C
Slopes on average : gentle (3-5%), hilly (16-30%),
Landforms : plateau/plains,
Altitudinal zone : 101-500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : not relevant,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : very deep (> 120 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : 5-50 m,
Availability of surface water : medium,
Water quality (untreated) : for agricultural use only (irrigation),
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : commercial/ market,
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average, rich,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : mechanized/ motorized,
Gender : men,
Age of land users : middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 15-50 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : large-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : communal/ village,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
health : good
education : good
technical assistance : good
employment (e.g. off-farm) : good
markets : moderate
energy : good
roads and transport : moderate
drinking water and sanitation : moderate
financial services : moderate

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously the soil was mixed with rocks and big stones, so that it was difficult for planting. By applying the grass cultivation method and gradually remove of those stones and rocks crop production is increased.
fodder production : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before the land user let his animals take up only natural grass from the sourroundings. After, by cultivating different grass varieties in a large area the fodder production increased substantially
fodder quality : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Natural grass is low in nutrients and proteins necessary for animal growth compared to the high potential grass varieties planted by the farmer. This grass varieties have many nutrients and proteins required for animal husbandry.
animal production : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously the lack of fodder for animal husbandry resulted in low animal production. From the moment the farmer was able to get enough fodder from his grasslands the animal production increased significantly.
risk of production failure : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Because limited fodder especially in dry season the animal production failure quit a problem. From the moment he was able to produce high valued animal fodder on a large area the risk of production failure decreased to some extent.
product diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before the farmer got only natural grass from the surroundings, but now he produce Napir grass, Guinea grass, Paspalum grass by himself.
production area (new land under cultivation/ use) : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before animal husbandry is dependet from natural forests and from rice fields. After the farmer was able to expand the productive area by 15 square metres of grassland.
land management : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before the animal had grazed freely in the village sourroundings and so the farmer had to guard them. After grass cultivation the animals graze on fenced grass lands on a bi-weekly basis. And futher the cattle can be fed by own freh or dried fodder grass.
expenses on agricultural inputs : -1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : There enlarged area called for more monetary inputs to establish the cattle farm and to cultivate the additionoal 15 ha (new expenses: cattle housing, fencing, grass varieties and farm maintenance).
farm income : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM : 80,000,000 kip/annual
Comments/ specify : The increase in revenues base on the fact, that now the farmer can sell many healty and strong cows every year at a good price. Actually, he produces cows even for the export to Vietnam.
diversity of income sources : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before cows has been sold in few numbers. After the application of the technology the farmer raises besides of a larger amount of cows also goats, pigs, poultry for the market. In addition he can sell different grass seed varieties.
workload : -2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously the animal raising based on free grazing in the village sourroundings. The establishment and maintenance of the new grassland area and the increased cow herd and other livestock resulted in increased workload.
soil cover : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The soil cover increased significantly because of the cultivation ot the strong and expansive grass varieties.
soil loss : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The soil can be fixed by the expanding and deep roots of the different grass varieties. Furhtermore, grass residues promote better soil cover that reduces soil loss by water erosion too.
soil accumulation : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : During the rainy season the plant detritus and manure promote soil accumulation.
soil compaction : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The expanding and deep root system of the grass cultivation improves the soil structure significantly.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments regarding impact assessment :
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : not known
Season : dry season
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
Type of climatic change/ extreme : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : wet/ rainy season
Type of climatic change/ extreme : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
other (specify) :
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : not known
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Short-term returns : negative,
Long-term returns : positive,
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : single cases/ experimental,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) : 15
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 90-100%,
Comments : The farmer in this case study adopted the technology.The main problem are the high investment costs.
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : Yes
If yes, indicate to which changing conditions it was adapted :
other (specify) : ownership and organization
Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.) : At the beginning in 2009, the technology covered 15 ha of village land and had been established by project support and maintained by breeding groups. Later in 2014 - after project failure due to organizational and maintenance difficulties - one land user of the village rent this land from the local autorities and applied the Technology by himself.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Initially the project (ADB) provided an equipment, grass seeds and land preparation
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Improved the livestock quality
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increased household income from livestock
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Improved soil quality due to animal manure and plant detritus
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Insufficient water in dry season which effects limited grass production
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Difficult to control the animals in such large area
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Difficult to collect manure for fertilizing the soil
How can they be overcome? : water harvesting area is required
How can they be overcome? : restrict the grazing areas
How can they be overcome? :

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 time for field visit
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 2 persons