+856 30 988 1648

ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Water harvesting in the pond created by excavator
Further comments
Date 05/07/2017
Location Asoy village, Samoaui district, Salavan province
Name of photographer Chankham
Name of photographer 46,85

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Pond development in wetland areas
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Samoaui district, Salavan province
Further specification of location : Asoy village

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname : Inphet
Lastname / surname : keosonghueang
First name(s) : Amthae
First name(s) : tulan
Gender : male,
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Name of institution :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Conversion of wetland plots into fishpond.
Description : At Asoy village and its neighboring villages in the Salavan Province of Lao PDR some rice fields were regularly flood prone during rainy season (August ̶ October) because of a newly constructed road containing culverts leading first through the rice fields and then into natural water ways. Therefore, in 2005 one of the village's land users spread the idea to convert this regularly damaged and increasingly unproductive rice land into fish ponds. The soil texture in this area is mostly clayey and therefore also generally not very suitable for agriculture, but certainly appropriate for water holding throughout the year. Thus, the main objective of these pond constructions was the raising of fishes for income generation and for getting water for household purposes during dry season; e.g. for gardening, fodder production, and for banana and bamboo cultivation along the edges of the pond dikes. The fishpond should also provide water for livestock such as cattle, buffalo, and poultry farming. The construction of the ponds in the case documented here started by shutting off the culvert at the inlets by using sawn wood and clay to close the concrete pipe (Ø80 cm) crossing the road. After, vegetation clearance was required by using a bulldozer. A backhoe then was applied to excavate an area of 1.5 ha to create a first big pond (150 m long and 100 m wide). The excavated soil was used directly for the dike construction. The dikes were around 2.5 m high and 2 m wide. For the first big pond only two dikes had to be shaped because the other two sides were road and fallow. At completion of the big pond, two smaller ponds have been constructed also by backhoe directly next to it. The first of them encompasses an area of 2,000 square meters (20 m x 100 m) and the second 3,000 square meters (30 m x 100 m). After this, four new Ø40 cm drainage pipes were installed; a first one throughout the road leading into the first pond, two of them connecting the ponds and the last pipe is needed to lead the water finally into the natural water way. The pipes have to be installed at a height of 50 cm from the edges. To stabilize the ponds Napier grass, banana, and bamboo can be cultivated on the top of the dikes. Maintenance of the pond requires regular cutting of the Napier grass, which is done by hand. Also regular weeding of the dike’s edges is required, as well as the stabilization of the embankments by using timber and soil. Where repair is required, the timber can be placed vertically, and then filled out with soil. The ponds are hold and maintained individually by the land owner and the benefit of them is considerable. The annual fish production is approximately 1 ton , equivalent to 15 million Kip . The ponds also store water for utilization during dry season especially for the animals (cattle, buffalos, and poultries). The grass growing on the edges can serve as fodder for animals. Banana and bamboo shoots can be consumed and sold for income generation. Material from branches of bamboo trees is used for handicrafts such as baskets and bamboo sheets for house walls, etc. The fishpond improves the aquatic ecosystem habitats in the area. The pond provides spawning areas for a large variety of fish, shrimp, crab, and frog species. However, with changing climate and rainfall patterns it happened that the ponds dried up and the soil became hard with rapidly growing weed around the ponds. Plants such as Napier and banana that are cultivated on the edge of the dikes can die. On the other hand in particular years, there flash floods occur that can affect the dikes due to rapid water runoff; in consequence also fish and other aquatic species can be lost and crops can be damaged. Nonetheless, the land owners at Asoy village prefer this technology and want to expand and improve it, when they have capability or when support from external institutions can be expected (e.g. training in fish breeding and required equipment such as hapa fish net for fish nursery, air pump, dip nets and harvesting net). Finally, the fishponds have been expanded to neighboring villages as well.
   
Caption, explanation of photo :
Caption, explanation of photo : Pond dyke created by excavator
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 04/07/2017
Date : 05/07/2017
Location : Asoy village, Samoaui district, Salavan province
Location : Asoy village, Samoaui district, Salavan province
Name of photographer : Chankham
Name of photographer : Chankham
Vimeo ID :
Comments, short description :
Date :
Location :
Name of videographer :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Samoaui district, Salavan province
Further specification of location : Asoy village
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : single site,
Comments :
Indicate year of implementation : 2005
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : 10-50 years ago,
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through land users' innovation,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, create beneficial economic impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Waterways, waterbodies, wetlands, assets/img/pictos/land_waterways.png, , tech_lu_waterways,
Land use type : Ponds, dams,
other (specify) :
Main products/ services : Fishs
Comments : Number of growing seasons per year: 1 Livestock density : 5 buffalo, 7 goats, 30 pigs, 7 cows
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
SLM group : water harvesting, beekeeping, aquaculture, poultry, rabbit farming, silkworm farming, etc.,
other (specify) :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : adapt to land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Phonesyli phanvongsa
Date : 05/07/2017
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology unit,
Specify unit : 1.5 ha
Specify dimensions of unit (if relevant) :
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : kip
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD = : 8500
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50,000
Activity : Close up the stream
Activity : Exaction works at the bog wetland or seasonal flood prone area
Activity : Build dykes (use backhoe)
Timing (season) : before on set of rain
Timing (season) :
Timing (season) :
Specify input : labour
Specify input : excavator
Unit : person-day
Unit : machine
Quantity : 50
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 3000000
Total costs per input : 2500000
Total costs per input : 3000000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : hoe
Specify input : shovel
Specify input : knife
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 20
Quantity : 20
Quantity : 5
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Total costs per input : 1000000
Total costs per input : 600000
Total costs per input : 100000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : fodder
Unit : bunch
Quantity : 3
Costs per Unit : 20000
Total costs per input : 60000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Fry
Unit : Fry
Quantity : 2400
Costs per Unit : 1000
Total costs per input : 2400000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 9660000
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD : 1136.47
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs :
Comments : The costs for the driver is included in the hiring costs the excavator of the pond.
Activity : Canal maintenance
Activity : Canal reparation
Activity : Canal reparation
Timing/ frequency : yearly
Timing/ frequency : yearly
Timing/ frequency : yearly
Comments :
Specify input : labour
Unit : person
Quantity : 6
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 300000
% of costs borne by land users :
Specify input : hoe
Specify input : shovel
Specify input : knife
Specify input : trolley
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 250000
Total costs per input : 50000
Total costs per input : 60000
Total costs per input : 20000
Total costs per input : 500000
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 930000
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD : 109.41
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs :
Comments :
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : Cost for labour and backhoe service is the most important input.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 1,001-1,500 mm, 2,001-3,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 2000
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : Rainy season from May to November, highest rainfall between July to October. dry season from December to March April (rainfall)
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Samoui Agriculture Office
Agro-climatic zone : humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : flat (0-2%), gentle (3-5%),
Landforms : plateau/plains, footslopes,
Altitudinal zone : 501-1,000 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : convex situations,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : moderately deep (51-80 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : fine/ heavy (clay),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty), fine/ heavy (clay),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc. :
Ground water table : 5-50 m,
Availability of surface water : good,
Water quality (untreated) : good drinking water,
Water quality refers to: :
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : Yes
Regularity : frequently
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity :
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : subsistence (self-supply),
Off-farm income : 10-50% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : men,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 1-2 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : medium-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system? : null
Specify :
Comments :
health : good
education : good
technical assistance : good
employment (e.g. off-farm) : moderate
markets : moderate
energy : good
roads and transport : good
drinking water and sanitation : good
financial services : moderate

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : -1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : After ponds construction various crops can be planted on the dike of the ponds.
animal production : 2
Quantity before SLM : Very rare
Quantity after SLM : 1 ton of fish
Comments/ specify : Before, only small amount of fish was captured because the fish came only from natural water bodies. The farmer also increased the poultry due to the fish ponds.
risk of production failure : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before, only small amount of fish was captured because the fish came only from natural water bodies. The farmer also increased the poultry due to the fish ponds.
land management : null
Quantity before SLM : No management (bog wetland)
Quantity after SLM : fish farm management
Comments/ specify : water harvesting and fish production
water availability for livestock : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before they was only a not very suitable natural bog area that accumulated peat from dead plant material and contained only shallow water. After the pond construction the water was deep enough for fish production, drinking water for livestock and also for crop irrigation.
expenses on agricultural inputs : -2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : After completion of the pond the farmer has to buy costly fish breed every year from Vietnam (1000 kip/fry)
farm income : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before the pond construction the farmer produced only for reaching self sufficiency without any income from the agricultural production. After implementation of the technology the farmer got income from fish, crop and fruit at around 15 million kip/year.
diversity of income sources : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously there is not any income from agriculture produce, after pond have been complete, they have many kind of produce for sell such as banana, vegetation, fish
workload : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously the farmer relied on natural wetland without substantial maintenance work. Then after completing the ponds the farmer has to spend quite a lot of work time to maintain them properly.
food security/ self-sufficiency : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : After pond construction the family was able to increase food sedcurity and self-sufficiency as they got supplmentary fish, fruits and other crops for self-consumption. Futher, they were able to sale the products and by this getting money when required.
recreational opportunities : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The pond serves now as recreational site for fishing and swimming.
harvesting/ collection of water (runoff, dew, snow, etc) : -2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before, the water streamed though the land without beeing harvested. Since the creation of the ponds - which were surrounded by dykes - the water were collected and stored easily for different already mentioned purposes.
surface runoff : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Soil surface runoff and accumulate in down stream. the ponds can control and reduced runoff by by overflow, the sediment are accumulated on pond bottom
beneficial species (predators, earthworms, pollinators) : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : There are many kind of animals in the area including prey ( rats, fish, frogs...) and predators ( snakes, snake fish, bird...), all acting as a small food chain elements.
habitat diversity : -2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The increase in animal types and animal species in the area indicates the increase of the habitat diversity.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements) :
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : dry season
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : wet/ rainy season
increase or decrease : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : very well
How does the Technology cope with it? : very well
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Short-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
Long-term returns : slightly positive,
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : slightly positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : > 50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 91-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increased aquatic resources with a variety of species including crabs, shrimps, fishes, snails
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Suitable to carry out agricultural activities all year-round including crops and animal raising
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increased food security and cash crop production
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Having sufficient food for the whole year from agriculture production such as crops and animals
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Able to produce fry for individual ponds and distribute to others
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Able to store water for agricultural activities (cultivation and animal feeding) during dry season
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Able to generate income for households from integrated fishing practices
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Lack of fund to maintain the ponds
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Occasional floods cause repair work of the pond dykes
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Some times, occurring droughts run the ponds dry.
How can they be overcome? : Producing fry by themselves for sale. By this, creating fund for solid maintenance work.
How can they be overcome? :
How can they be overcome? :
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Lack of expertise in fish raising and breeding
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Lack of fund for fish raising and fish breeding (purchase of juvenile fish is needed)
How can they be overcome? : provide fish breeding training activities for local people
How can they be overcome? : provide equipment or fish breeds

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 place
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 2 persons
When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 04/07/2017
Comments :