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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Banana cultivation in sloping land
Further comments
Date 04/07/2017
Location Lahang village, Samouy district of Salavan province
Name of photographer Anousith Namsena
Name of photographer

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Banana intercropping in sloping land
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Samouy district of Salavan province
Further specification of location :

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname : Saylaveng
First name(s) : Amyem
Gender : male,
Name of institution : Village head
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : In mountain regions of Laos Banana cultivated with intercrops during the first year of plantation led to mutually better plant growth by higher availability of soil nutrients and subsequently produces better yield. It also prevents soil erosion, air pollution (reduction of slash and burn cultivation) and it mitigates climate related drought.
Description : The banana provides significant benefits for the households in the uplands of Lao PDR. It serves for own consumption and for selling to generate regular household income. Its leaves are wanted on the market as well and can therefore generate good income too. Besides its low maintenance cost and easy to grow, banana can retain soil moisture and complement with ecology and biodiversity, on condition that its cultivation sustainable. Currently, the banana consumption in the region is increasing and results in banana expansion in the upland areas of Lao PDR. By tradition during the first year of banana plantation the local land users of Samouy district, Saravan province, Lao PDR cultivated banana intercropped with other upland crops (potentially with upland rice and maize) . However, the farmers implemented this cultivation technique without exact planning, measurement, in unorganized rows, or inadequate size of the hole. Also the poor maintenance after planting led to low banana productivity. In 2010, a Project supported by IFAD encouraged local people to grow banana with provision of technical advice through training and implementation. Banana plantation method recommended by the Project is following:1. Site selection: the land area with slope between 10-20 percent and rich loamy soils.2. Spacing and digging of holes: farmers arrange banana plants in lines and rows with spacing of 3m x 3m. 3. Dimension of hole: 25cm x 25cm with a depth of 30cm.3.Soil amendments: If the fertility of soil is low, manure (3 – 5kg/hole) has to be added on the bottom of the holes.4. Intercrops during first year of planation: Between the banana’s rows upland crops can be seeded in regular rows. This helps to prevent soil erosion during the first year.5. Maintenance: Regular thinning and cutting of the banana branches are required after planting to get good yield. Thinning may also involve removal of excess banana suckers if there are more than 3-4 shoots per hole.6. Farmers are required to maintain banana plantation areas including regular weeding as well as soil amendment (animal manure) to promote successful banana production. Covering the soil constantly with banana leaves is one of the most important activities to maintain the soil’s fertility (prevent soil leaching), structure and moisture, to improve the soil life, to lessen the burden of weeding and to prevent soil erosion. Chemical pesticides and fungicides are not foreseen to be used in this practice.7. After harvest of the intercrops: After the first year, when the maize or upland rice has been harvested, banana suckers will be planted in the rows on the remaining space between the one year old banana trees.In summary, this method of banana planting in sloping areas is simple and with average of 3-4 million Kip per household per year it generates good and regular income for the households. Banana provides fruits all year round that can be sold throughout the year whilst demand is also increasing. Currently, the average of the banana plantation area is approximately 10 ha per household. In addition, banana is tolerant to drought. Banana leaves spread over the soil (mulching) keep the soil moist provide best nutrients for soil organisms. And supplement amendment in form of animal manure improves the nutrient recharge. The soil cover improved to some extent from the beginning by the improved intercrop method according to the criteria learned by the project. However, the workload increased due to improved maintenance of banana.
 
Caption, explanation of photo : Banana cultivation intercropping with maize
Further comments :
Date : 04/07/2017
Location : Lahang village, Samouy district of Salavan province
Name of photographer : Anousith Namsena
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Samouy district of Salavan province
Further specification of location :
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : 10-100 sites,
Indicate year of implementation : 2010
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : as part of a traditional system (> 50 years), through projects/ external interventions,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) : ໂຄງການ ແຜນງານ ຄາໍ້ປະກັນ ສະບຽງອາຫານ ແລະ ໂພສະນາການ (IFAD)

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, create beneficial economic impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland,
Land use type : Annual cropping, Perennial (non-woody) cropping,
other (specify) :
Annual cropping - Specify crops : cereals - maize, cereals - rice (upland),
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Annual cropping system : null
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops : banana/plantain/abaca,
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify :
Is intercropping practiced? : Yes
If yes, specify which crops are intercropped : Banana as perennial (noon-woody crop / upland rice and maize at first year of banana cultivation.
Is crop rotation practiced? : null
If yes, specify :
Comments : Main crops (cash and food crops): Banana as perennial (noon-woody crop / upland rice and maize at first year of banana cultivation.
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
SLM group : rotational systems (crop rotation, fallows, shifting cultivation), improved ground/ vegetation cover,
other (specify) :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Anousith Namsena
Date : 06/07/2017
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : 1ha
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha = :
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : LAK
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 30000
Activity : Slash and clearance vegetations
Activity : Burning for land preparation
Activity : Digging the holes for the seedlings and planting
Activity : Collecting the banana suckers from forest
Timing (season) : January to Febuary
Timing (season) : March
Timing (season) : April (before rain)
Timing (season) : May
Specify input : Labour for land preparation
Specify input : Labour for planting
Specify input : Labour for collecting banana suckers
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 70
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 2100000
Total costs per input : 300000
Total costs per input : 300000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Knief
Specify input : Shovel
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 4
Quantity : 4
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 20000
Total costs per input : 120000
Total costs per input : 80000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Banana sucker
Unit : sucker
Quantity : 60
Costs per Unit : 5000
Total costs per input : 300000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Manure
Unit : kg
Quantity : 240
Costs per Unit : 1000
Total costs per input : 240000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 3440000
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD : 430
Activity : Weeding
Activity : Cutting of banana "branches"
Activity : Banana harvest
Timing/ frequency : 2 times after planting
Timing/ frequency : At different times when necessary
Timing/ frequency : After one year of planting
Specify input : Labour for weeding
Specify input : Labour for cutting of banana "branches"
Specify input : Labour for harvest
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 20
Quantity : 12
Quantity : 15
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 600000
Total costs per input : 360000
Total costs per input : 450000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 1410000
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD : 176.25
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : The most important factors affecting the costs is labour for establishment and maintenance.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 1,001-1,500 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm :
Specifications/ comments on rainfall :
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Meteorological Office in Samouy district of Salavan province
Agro-climatic zone : humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : hilly (16-30%),
Landforms : hill slopes,
Altitudinal zone : 501-1,000 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : not relevant,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : shallow (21-50 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : 5-50 m,
Availability of surface water : good,
Water quality (untreated) : unusable,
Water quality refers to: :
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : mixed (subsistence/ commercial),
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : women, men,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 5-15 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : large-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system? : null
Specify :
health : moderate
education : moderate
technical assistance : good
employment (e.g. off-farm) : poor
markets : moderate
energy : good
roads and transport : good
drinking water and sanitation : moderate
financial services : moderate

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Compared to the traditional cultivation practice the new technology introduced by the IFAD project bear far better banana yield.
crop quality : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The land users got bigger bananas and the productivity increased comapred to the former cultivation practice.
farm income : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Due to better yield all year round the income from banana selling increased.
workload : -2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Workload increased do to improved maintenance of the banana cultivation area (weeding, manuring, branch cutting etc).
food security/ self-sufficiency : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Food security improved due to better banana production that provide enough income to meet other important household needs.
community institutions : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Established and strengthened banana producer groups to negotiate with the traders.
soil moisture : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The banana leaves on soil as mulch improved the soil moisture.
soil cover : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The soil cover is improved to some extent as both, banana and intercrop (maize and upland rice), are planted according to the criteria learned by the project. Futhermore, banana leaves scattered as mulching material cover the soil now.
soil loss : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Due to better soil cover.
nutrient cycling/ recharge : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Amendment in form of manure and the mulching by banana leaves improved the nutrient recharche.
beneficial species (predators, earthworms, pollinators) : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The banana plantation and its leaves on soil is good for increase in predators, earthworms, pollinators.
habitat diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increased micro organism (millipede, earth worn, centipede).
emission of carbon and greenhouse gases : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Decreased emission of carbon and greenhouse gases from slash and burn shifting cultivation.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
impact of greenhouse gases : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : The improved banana cultivation reduced the slash and burn practice and thus as well the emission of carbon and greenhouse gases.
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements) :
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : very well
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : positive,
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : positive,
Comments : ສຳລັບ ການບຳລຸງຮັກສາ ມີພຽງແຕ່ ເສຍຫຍ້າ ຊື່ງບໍ່ໄດ້ສີ້ນເປືອງຫຼາຍ ເພາະໃຊ້ພຽງແຕ່ ແຮງງານພາຍໃນຄອບຄົວ
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : > 50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) : 80 households out of 110 holds within the village hold such kind of banana plantations.
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 51-90%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : The planting technique promoted by the project was not complicated to be implemented.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Banana plantation became the main source of household income.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Stabilized slash and burn shifting cultivation.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The land users can harvest bananas during the whole year, that ensure regular income.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The low investment costs for banana plantations.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The banana plantation can contribute to the climate change resilience and to reduce CO2 emission.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Weeding is a problem as it is labour intensive activity and family labour force is limited.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Lack of experience and knowledge for which part of banana trees is the best to cut the banana branches to get the banana productive.
How can they be overcome? : The land users have to pay more attention on weeding on time by hiring more labour for weeding activity.
How can they be overcome? : The land users require more specific training and field visiting to exchange with other land users who are experienced in good practices.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The land users have not enough experience by which means they can design the rows and lines exactly with regard to the sloping area before planting.
How can they be overcome? : The land users can use plastic rope to measure the length from one hole to another hole.

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers, interviews with SLM specialists/ experts, source_interviews_experts,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 04/07/2017
Comments :