+856 30 988 1648

ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Ponds in slope area - an overview
Further comments
Date 07/07/2017
Location Tangko village, Samoaui district, Salavan province
Name of photographer Chankham Sinthavong
Name of photographer

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Fish pond construction on slope area on clayey subsoil for water harvesting
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Samoaui district, Salavan province
Further specification of location : Tangko village

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname : Amdang
Lastname / surname : Amdo
First name(s) : nep
First name(s) : Kousoai
Gender : male,
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Name of institution :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments : Turn the land in slope area that spring water flow through to the ponds water harvesting and reduces leaching on soil surface

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : The methods for construction of earthen pond on slope area in adjacent to the village where it forms perennial water channels with clay soil which is unsuitable for other agricultural purposes. Therefore, Oxfam encouraged the construction of communal pond to create the interest for many households to build their own ponds.
Description : With the slope mountainous area, the top soil's soil nutrients and organisms are leached by heavy rain during wet season (July-November). This land was mainly used for Bong tree plantation (Nothaphoebe umbelliflora) and a variety of fruit trees; however, farmers have to wait for many years to be able to get small harvest from these trees. In 2004, an Oxfam Project promoted and encouraged local community to construct a communal mud-pond with a size of 50 x 40 m on steep terrains near the village. The project utilized the water resource potential by digging a pond for the villager's use as year round gravity fed water supply system. The project initially provided fish fingerlings (tilapia, silver barb: scientific name is Barbonymus gonionotus, and grass carp: scientific name is Ctenopharyngodon idella). The village residents realized immediately the significant benefits of the pond. Besides raising fishes in the pond, local people could use water for household gardening and as a source of drinking water for livestock (cow, water buffalo, pig, duck, etc). The pond is easy to manage and maintain whilst it is also more convenient to collect aquatic resources in proximity to the village. Typically, the potential site condition for pond construction is steep mountainous terrain with average slope of 10 -15 degrees. The soil property should be clay or silt clay which can hold the water. Later after the community pond has been constructed some villagers who had potential land left constructed their individual ponds to improve their own production. This because they have seen the benefit of communal pond which can provide approximately 200 - 300 kg of fish per years. The individual pond construction reduced finally also conflicts caused by different issues of the community pond. The construction of the pond is not very complicated. First, the water valves from GFS (provided by the Poverty Reduction Fund) turned off the sources water from the upstream area. Bush clearing, tree felling, stump removal and vegetation stockpiling (for burning) was then required on construction areaof the pond The pond size should be designed at a size of approx. 30 x 20m. Next step, the manual excavation works (by using hoes and shovels) should ba undertaken at upper section of the canal. The ground has to be excavated with an average depth between 0.5 – 1m and with the excavated soil pond dyke has to be alligned arround the pond area (square shape). The dykes soil has to be compressed to very compact barriers to prevent water leaking and dyke erosion (even small holes in dyke can rapidly enlarge, leading to the potential future damages and dyke bursting). The pond dyke’s height is 1.2m in hight and 2m wide with dyke slopes from the foot to the edge (where it also provides a walkway for feeding fishes or gardening) is approximately 45%. The design of the thick dyke is to ensure its stability from soil erosion as a result from a certain fish species that pierces the dyke slopes and rapid water flow. If the pond dyke is designed with fewer slopes, it will be susceptible to soil erosion. At least a drainage outlet is required with a P100 pipe for 4m long. The pipe should be installed with 1m height from the pond bottom at the outlet. This pipe will drain water and prevent overflow that may cause damage to the dyke. The pond area later need to be leveled by using hoes and shovels cut the undulating area. Then should be kept the pond bottom dry for at least one week to allow time for pond repair as well as to increase the production of the pond bottom, after that fill the water into the pond by turn on the inlet valves that have been turn off earlier. This pond construction method may require intensive labors and extensive time to complete. Funding for construction tools and construction method are still insufficient. However, this is the effective way to maximize water from perennial stream for integrated management and its benefits are considerable especially for fish consumption in household and selling for generate household income.
     
Caption, explanation of photo : Individual ponds structure measures on slopping area
Caption, explanation of photo : Community pond and individual pond close to the village
Caption, explanation of photo : Spring water source
Further comments :
Further comments :
Further comments : There is 3 spring water sources in the village
Date : 07/07/2017
Date : 07/07/2017
Date : 07/07/2017
Location : Tangko village, Samoaui district, Salavan province
Location : Tangko village, Samoaui district, Salavan province
Location : Tangko village, Samoaui district, Salavan province
Name of photographer : Chankham Sinthavong
Name of photographer : Chankham Sinthavong
Name of photographer : Chankham Sinthavong
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Samoaui district, Salavan province
Further specification of location : Tangko village
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : single site,
Indicate year of implementation : 2007
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : 10-50 years ago,
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through projects/ external interventions,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) : Through an Oxfarm project encouragement

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, create beneficial social impact,
other (specify) : reduce conflicts
Land use type : Waterways, waterbodies, wetlands, assets/img/pictos/land_waterways.png, , tech_lu_waterways, Unproductive land, assets/img/pictos/degra_wastelands.png, , tech_lu_unproductive,
Land use type : Ponds, dams,
other (specify) :
Main products/ services : Fish raising
Specify : the type of soil in that area are silt and heavy clay so water can not penetrate into the soil
Remarks :
Comments : Number of growing seasons per year: 1 Livestock density: 2 pigs, 2 goat, 10 Poultry
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
SLM group : cross-slope measure, water harvesting,
other (specify) :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : adapt to land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Phonesyri Phanvongsa
Date : 07/07/2017
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology unit,
Specify unit : individual fish pond
Specify dimensions of unit (if relevant) : 30 X 15 meters
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : kip
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD = : 8400
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 35000 kip
Activity : weeding and cleaning the area
Activity : Burning the vegetation
Activity : Making pond dyke and add outlet pipe
Activity : Fill the water into the pond
Timing (season) : before onset of rain, January - Mach
Timing (season) : before onset of rain
Timing (season) : before onset of rain
Timing (season) : beginning of rain
Specify input : labor for digging an individual fish pond (for individual fish pond )
Unit : person-day
Quantity : 180
Costs per Unit : 35000
Total costs per input : 6300000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : hoe
Specify input : shovel
Specify input : knife
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 4
Quantity : 5
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 200000
Total costs per input : 150000
Total costs per input : 60000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : pipe
Unit : m
Quantity : 80
Costs per Unit : 15000
Total costs per input : 1200000
% of costs borne by land users :
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 7910000
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD : 941.67
Activity : Drainage
Activity : Clean the pond bottom
Activity : Repair the pond dyke
Activity : Refill the pond
Timing/ frequency : After harvesting, the end of rainy season
Timing/ frequency : After drainage
Timing/ frequency : Before on set of rain
Timing/ frequency :
Specify input : labor for drainage
Specify input : clean the pond bottom
Specify input : labor for repair pond dyke
Specify input : refill the pond
Unit : person-day
Unit : person-day
Unit : person-day
Unit : person-day
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 35000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Total costs per input : 35000
Total costs per input : 70000
Total costs per input : 105000
Total costs per input : 35000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : hoe
Specify input : shovel
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 100000
Total costs per input : 60000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 405000
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD : 48.21
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs : ທືນຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ 100%
Comments :
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : Most important factors is labor for digging the pond

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 1,001-1,500 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 500
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : Rainy season from May to November, highest rainfall between July to October. dry season from December to March April (rainfall)
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Samoaui Meteorological station
Agro-climatic zone : humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : moderate (6-10%), rolling (11-15%),
Landforms : ridges, hill slopes,
Altitudinal zone : 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : convex situations,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : deep (81-120 cm), very deep (> 120 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : fine/ heavy (clay),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : fine/ heavy (clay),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : < 5 m,
Availability of surface water : good,
Water quality (untreated) : good drinking water,
Water quality refers to: :
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : subsistence (self-supply),
Off-farm income : 10-50% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : men,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : < 0.5 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : small-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : communal/ village, individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : communal (organized),
other (specify) :
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system? : null
Specify :
health : moderate
education : poor
technical assistance : moderate
employment (e.g. off-farm) : moderate
markets : poor
energy : good
roads and transport : poor
drinking water and sanitation : good
financial services : poor

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : -2
Quantity before SLM : 20 kg
Quantity after SLM : 5 kg
Comments/ specify : Loss of land for crop cultivation because the villagers turned the crop land to pond area
animal production : 2
Quantity before SLM : 200 kg
Quantity after SLM : 300 kg
Comments/ specify : Increase in aquatic product"bag" and decrease of hunting "bag"
production area (new land under cultivation/ use) : -1
Quantity before SLM : 3 vegetable plots
Quantity after SLM : 2 vegetable plots
Comments/ specify : because they moved crop their crop cultivation to an other, smaller area
water availability for livestock : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously the animal must to go to the river or stream to drink water after ponds has been constructed there is water available for animals in the ponds
workload : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Decreasing in the workload for land user as he does not have to go fishing in the stream far away from the village
food security/ self-sufficiency : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Improved fish production and could contribute fish for home consumption for whole year
land use/ water rights : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Improved land use right for fish pond as individual households have their own fish pond
community institutions : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The village head did not supported the management of community pond (this caused fish depletion). Later, after the individual ponds have been constructed the village head steered the organization of maintenance work on the community pond. This allowed e.g. fishing during village festivals there. Individual ponds are maintained always by the owners themselves.
conflict mitigation : 3
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Improved and reduced the conflict with neighbors regarding fishing as they conduct now their own fish ponds.
harvesting/ collection of water (runoff, dew, snow, etc) : 3
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Improved water runoff by construction of fish pond
animal diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase in aquatic animals regarding both quantity and species such as crab, snail and the land user can have exotic species of fish (Tilapia, common cap).
habitat diversity : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Decreased of vegetation on soil surface
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
downstream siltation : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Reduced surface runoff by heavy rain
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements) :
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : wet/ rainy season
Season : dry season
increase or decrease : decrease
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : very well
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
Season : wet/ rainy season
Season : dry season
increase or decrease : increase
increase or decrease : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Short-term returns : negative,
Long-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
Short-term returns : slightly negative,
Long-term returns : positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 11-50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) : 5 households in Tangko village have their own private fish pond and some of them are taking the initiative to increase the number of individual fish pond where possible.
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 51-90%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : Yes
If yes, indicate to which changing conditions it was adapted :
other (specify) : Conflict mitigation
Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.) : At the beginning in 2004 only a community pond has been constructed. Later villagers started to construct also individual ponds to mitigate social tensions caused by weak coordination of maintenance work concerned with this community pond.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : As the individual fish ponds are located close to the house it is easily for the land users to go fishing and maintain whenever they want. This serves time.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : All year round availability of water
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increased in food and nutrition security for household members
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The villagers will be able to produce fish also for the next generation
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Onset of heavy rain can damage the pond dykes and leading to erosion
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Floods in rainy season
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : The technology is labour intensive regarding repair of the dykes
How can they be overcome? :
How can they be overcome? : Use bigger pipe for outlet
How can they be overcome? : Use concrete dyke to make the dyke stronger
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The land user have not real experience and knowledge on pond construction (with regard to flash floods)
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The pond owner have no experience and knowledge on fish propagation. But not being able to propagate fish properly by themselves may increase their expenses in agriculture needlessly.
How can they be overcome? : Organize training course on pond construction
How can they be overcome? : Organize training course to get fish breeding and propagation expertise

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 time
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 2 persons
When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 07/07/2017
Comments :