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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Rice-fish system
Further comments
Date 11/07/2017
Location Duekdong villalge, Taoy district Salavan province
Name of photographer Xaiyarsid Khamphila
Name of photographer

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : An integrated rice - fish system
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Salavan Province
Further specification of location : Duekdong village Ta-oy District,

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person :
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname :
Lastname / surname :
First name(s) : Khen
First name(s) :
Gender : male,
Gender :
Name of institution :
Name of institution :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : United States Minor Outlying Islands

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Raising fish in rice paddy to optimize the use of land.
Description : A rice-fish system is effectively the integration of a rice field and a fish pond. This idea was initiated by local people who have been living with natural resources including forests, mountains and streams for generations. Their idea was to optimize these resources – namely the land and water to fish raising in the rice field at the same time. In the past, people were dependent on shifting cultivation. However, they recently switched to lowland rice cultivation because shifting cultivation for upland rice cultivation is insufficient for household consumption and against government policy for natural environment conservation; whatever the farmer still keep the upland rice cultivation in burned area but no allow to expand the new area. Raising fish in a rice paddy is an important technique to encourage permanent land use. It should be initiated in an appropriate environment especially one where there is water supply throughout the year. The rice paddy should be located along a stream, a river or an irrigation canal so that the water can be adequately channeled both in and out of the field. Ta-Oy is a district where there is limited productive agricultural land with most of the rice paddies being situated along mountain valleys and at the base of the hills. In this area agricultural activities rely entirely on natural rainfall. The creation of rice fields requires a considerable amount of labour from local households or otherwise a tractor needs to be hired to clear the area along the mountain valleys. Basically, rice paddy development in such areas requires the construction of small dykes in cross sections of the stream channel. Ground levelling may be required to ensure that the water reaches all of the plots. Typically, these paddy fields are arranged in a terraced formation. Raising fish in rice fields may require different methods from those of traditional rice paddies as there need to be appropriate measures taken in order to prevent natural disasters, particularly soil erosion. Rice fields that are suitable for fish raising need to have higher levees built around them and be equipped with an appropriate drainage system. The farmer also needs to construct deep retention water in the pond next to the rice field so as to regulate the water from the canal flow directly to rice field, which helps to reduce levees erosion. The integrated rice-fish system sets out to maximize land use as it enables both rice production and the raising of fish thereby providing increased food security for households as well as improving their income. In order to apply the technology, farmers need drainage pipes which are installed on levees to leveling the water in rice fields that are a part of the irrigation system. Other production inputs include the rice variety, fish fingerlings, knifes, hoes, spades, shovels and sickles. Both of these activities are mutually beneficial because the food waste and suspended nutrients in the water resulting from the fish waste provide a natural fertilizer for the rice and this also enhances the soil’s fertility, whilst at the same time the rice stalks provide a habitat for the fish. When pests or insects threaten the rice crop, fish fulfill the role of consuming them. The practice of raising fish in rice paddies also helps to reduce water pollution due to the process of eutrophication through fertilization, even though process of decaying is loss of oxygen production but it can be regenerated by phytoplankton’s photosynthesis and water sources recharge . In fact, the technology reduces expenses and labour required for the cultivation of rice and at the same time preserves the environment, as the soil is moist throughout the year. This technology is very pragmatic for farmers as it allows them to provide sufficient rice and fish for their families’ needs. Benefits also include increased productivity in comparison to shifting cultivation which provided insufficient outputs and farmers often experienced rice shortages. Farmers can now cultivate rice for two seasons. Another benefit are the nutrients and the decay from fish faeces which become a natural fertilizer for the rice and add microorganisms to the soil. An integrated rice-fish system can be implemented in an area of 500 sqm (25m x 20m), with a water depth of 0.5 – 1 m and a gradient between 3 - 5% which is similar to that of terraced rice paddies. The space between rows of rice stems should be 20 – 25cm with an open area for the fish without any rice plants approximately 5 square meters from the levee to the field where there is a water pipe to generate oxygen for fishes. The fish population should be at a density of five fish per square meter, and suitable species include Pa pak (Barbonymus gonionotus), tilapia and Pa kheng (Anabas testudineus).Strengths: (1) An increase in rice production in a smaller area because the farmer is able to cultivate rice for two seasons as well as in fish production (both a dry season and a rain fed rice crop). (2) An integrated fish culture maximizes the agricultural land. (3) Nutrients and fish faeces are essential for rice as well as add microorganisms to the soil. (4) Raising fish in a rice field provides a good return and optimizes land use. Weaknesses (1) A lack of funds to implement this technology – farmers need some source of funding. (2) It has been implemented traditionally without any technical knowledge –there is the need for farmers to receive technical advice regarding the maintenance of a rice-fish system as well as land management. (3) The need for appropriate equipment to implement the production process. (4) If the fish population density is too high, it might affect the health of the rice. (5) It is not possible to propagate an adequate number of fish fingerlings for the next year in the existing rice-fish system, an individual nursery pond for propagation is required.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : The bamboo tube for filling water from field to field
Caption, explanation of photo : Free space for fish feeding
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 11/07/2017
Date : 11/07/2017
Location : Ta-oy District, Salavan Province
Location : Ta-oy District, Salavan Province
Name of photographer : Xaiyarsid
Name of photographer : Xaiyarsid
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Salavan Province
Further specification of location : Duekdong village Ta-oy District,
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : single site,
Indicate year of implementation : 2013
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through land users' innovation, during experiments/ research,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) : The farmer has seen this technology in the northern part of the country, where it is a traditional system, and then wanted to do it on his own fields.

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, create beneficial economic impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland, Waterways, waterbodies, wetlands, assets/img/pictos/land_waterways.png, , tech_lu_waterways,
Land use type : Annual cropping,
other (specify) :
Annual cropping - Specify crops : cereals - rice (wetland),
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Annual cropping system : null
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Number of growing seasons per year : 2,
Specify :
Is intercropping practiced? : null
If yes, specify which crops are intercropped :
Is crop rotation practiced? : null
If yes, specify :
Land use type : Drainage lines, waterways,
other (specify) :
Main products/ services : Paddy rice
Comments : Livestock density: 5 fishes/m2
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : mixed rainfed-irrigated,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments : canal irrigation from the stream
SLM group :
other (specify) : Rice-fish system
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation, reduce land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Xaiyarsid
Date : 12/07/2017
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : ha
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha = : 0,5 ha
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : kip
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 35000
Activity : Make levees
Activity : Surface leveling
Activity : Fill the water
Activity : Rice planting
Activity : Release the fish
Timing (season) : May
Timing (season) : May
Timing (season) : July
Timing (season) : July
Timing (season) : July
Specify input : Labour
Unit : person-day
Quantity : 5
Costs per Unit : 35000
Total costs per input : 175000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Hoe
Specify input : Shovel
Specify input : Tractor
Specify input : Knife
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : Day
Unit : piece
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 40000
Costs per Unit : 25000
Costs per Unit : 1000000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Total costs per input : 40000
Total costs per input : 25000
Total costs per input : 1000000
Total costs per input : 35000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Rice variety
Specify input : Fish breed
Unit : Kg
Unit : Fish
Quantity : 30
Quantity : 2500
Costs per Unit : 5000
Costs per Unit : 200
Total costs per input : 150000
Total costs per input : 500000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Bio fertilizer
Specify input : Manure
Unit : Bag
Unit : Bag
Quantity : 10
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 10000
Costs per Unit : 5000
Total costs per input : 100000
Total costs per input : 50000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Bamboo tube
Unit : Piece
Quantity : 5
Costs per Unit : 10000
Total costs per input : 50000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 2125000
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD : 265.63
Activity : Fertilizer
Activity : Fish feeding
Activity : Weeding
Activity : Levees repair
Timing/ frequency : One time per season after rice planting
Timing/ frequency : Once a day
Timing/ frequency : Once a month
Timing/ frequency : Once a season
Specify input : Labor for weeding on the levees
Specify input : Labor for both fish and rice harvesting
Unit : Day
Unit : Day
Quantity : 5
Quantity : 10
Costs per Unit : 35000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Total costs per input : 175000
Total costs per input : 350000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Hoe
Specify input : Shovel
Specify input : Knife
Unit : Piece
Unit : Piece
Unit : Piece
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 40000
Costs per Unit : 15000
Costs per Unit : 35000
Total costs per input : 40000
Total costs per input : 15000
Total costs per input : 70000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Bio fertilizer
Specify input : Manure
Unit : Bag
Unit : Bag
Quantity : 5
Quantity : 5
Costs per Unit : 10000
Costs per Unit : 5000
Total costs per input : 50000
Total costs per input : 25000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 725000
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD : 90.63
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : Tractor hiring (including tractor driver) and fish breed (young fish) are the most important factors affecting the costs.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 2,001-3,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 700
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : In January - March it is the lowest , in April is the beginning of the rainy season and highest rainfall is in July - September, then a gradual decrease till November.
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Doub village agriculture and forestry technique service center
Agro-climatic zone : sub-humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate : Cold weather for prolonged period combine with rain
Slopes on average : gentle (3-5%), moderate (6-10%),
Landforms : footslopes,
Altitudinal zone : 501-1,000 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : concave situations,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : moderately deep (51-80 cm), deep (81-120 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : medium (loamy, silty), fine/ heavy (clay),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : < 5 m,
Availability of surface water : excess,
Water quality (untreated) : good drinking water,
Water quality refers to: :
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : subsistence (self-supply),
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work, mechanized/ motorized,
Gender : women, men,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 0.5-1 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : medium-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, not titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system? : null
Specify :
health : good
education : moderate
technical assistance : good
employment (e.g. off-farm) : poor
markets : poor
energy : moderate
roads and transport : moderate
drinking water and sanitation : moderate
financial services : moderate

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Produced upland rice only which is insufficient for household consumption. After introducing the rice-fish system farmers are able to harvest more yield of rice.
crop quality : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Rice production is without any fertilizer. When they raise fish in the rice field the fish feces are functioning as a natural fertilizer for paddy rice.
animal production : 3
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : When raising fishes in the rice fields, the number of fishes can reach 2000-2500 fishes/field
demand for irrigation water : -3
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Shifting cultivation on slope area (upland rice) does not require irrigation water but the expansion of lowland paddy rice cultivation requires more water, so irrigation has to be used.
farm income : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Income increases because of fish, about 2-3 million Kip / year
workload : -2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The upland rice is the traditional activity for local people, the addition is lowland rice cultivation combined with fish that increases work for land users.
food security/ self-sufficiency : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Upland rice cultivation only is not enough for whole year consumption. Having upland rice and lowland rice is sufficient for family consumption for the whole year and in addition there is fish.
soil moisture : 3
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : In the dry season the land user brings the water from the stream to the cultivation area via the canal and the soil is more moist (stream is not dry in dry season)
soil compaction : -2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Heavy machine (tractor) used for soil tillage lowland rice cultivation is causing soil compaction.
nutrient cycling/ recharge : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Bio fertilizer and manure can create green water (plankton) as a food for fishes and the byproduct of fishes will be a nutrient for the rice plant.
animal diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : There is many species of fish that have been released each year and other animals such as crabs, frogs, snails, shrimps which come from the nature.
drought impacts : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : During dry spells water is provided through the water canal to the lowland rice cultivation to provide consistent water flow.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements) :
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : dry season
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
increase or decrease : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : dry season
increase or decrease : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : positive,
Short-term returns : slightly positive,
Long-term returns : very positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 11-50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) : 5 household initiate implement this technology
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 91-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : Yes
If yes, indicate to which changing conditions it was adapted : climatic change/ extremes,
other (specify) :
Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.) : The technology was adapted to a long period of rain
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increase in yields even in small area, able to produce 2 seasons a year
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Integrated rice and fish can produce 2 products in one area
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Fish byproduct can increase soil organic matter in the rice field
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Farmers need to buy the fry in the next season, as they have a lack of knowledge in fish breeding
How can they be overcome? : Fish breeding training course is needed
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Fish raising in rice fields is limited because its water is shallow compared to a pond in general (fish pond)
How can they be overcome? :

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 time field visit
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 person
When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 11/07/2017
Comments :