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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Broom grass cultivation on slope area
Further comments
Date 11/07/2017
Location Chorlaveing village, Ta-oy district, Salavan province
Name of photographer Theppadith Meunpanthavong
Name of photographer

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Broom grass cultivation to prevent soil erosion in sloping area
Locally used name : ເຈາະຕັງຕາມຕະກື
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Ta-oy district, Salavan province
Further specification of location : Chorlaveing village

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname :
Lastname / surname :
First name(s) : ຄຳຕັນ
First name(s) : Phonexay
Gender :
Gender : male,
Name of institution : ບ້ານ ຈໍລະວຽງ
Name of institution :
Address : ເມືອງ ຕະໂອ້ຍແຂວງ ສາລະວັນ
Address : Chorlaveing village, Ta-oy district, Salavan province
Country : United States Minor Outlying Islands
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Phone no. 1 : 030 9481001
Phone no. 1 : 020 9596409
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 2 :
E-mail 2 :

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 11/07/2017
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

No data !

7. Reference to/ comparison with other Technologies

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : The technique involves the planting of broom grass in order to prevent landslide in mountainous and stream areas which are adjacent to agricultural land. This is because broom grass has an extensive root system which can help to bind the soil. Additionally, farmers can generate an income from broom grass.
Description : Climate change has impacted agricultural practices and the livelihoods in rural mountain areas. Due to the occurrence of more volatile climate conditions including more frequent and intense rainfall in July and August, it has affected soil erosion on steep slopes. Therefore, broom grass was introduced to help stabilize soil composition and to prevent erosion and landslide. In 2011 farmers at Chorlaving village, Ta-oy district started the technology by taking the broom grass rhizomes from the natural forest and replanting these on their own land which had been impacted by soil erosion. Their main objective was to prevent landslides that could impact their crops. At the same time it is also easier to manage and harvest broom grass on their land, which will be sold to merchants coming to the village. Most importantly, broom grass - a native species - has an extensive root system into a depth of 1 – 2 meters that helps to bind the soil. Furthermore it is highly adaptive to local climatic and environmental conditions and is seldom affected by diseases or becomes a food source for animals (as its leaves are hairy and rough). For the collection of broom grass rhizomes simple equipment is needed. This includes blades, knifes and baskets. The rhizomes should be selected along steep slopes in mountainous areas. Then the stems are removed from the parent plants, whole young plant is removed including the root and culms of about 30 cm. The broom grass plantation of this case study area has a length of 300 meters and a width of 80 – 120 meters on a sloping terrain with a gradient between 11-15%. The seedlings can be grown from healthy rhizomes collected in local forest areas, with approximately 6,000 seedlings per hectare. They are usually planted in April and May when the soil is still warm and stimulates the growth. To start off with, the farmers need to collect broom grass rhizomes from forest areas for one or two days. Afterwards they should be maintained for few days in a well shaded area, watered and covered by plastic bags. Land preparation firstly involves bush clearance. After, the farmers create rows by digging 20 x 20 cm holes at a distance of approx. 2 meters from one hole to the next. Planting may commence at the bottom of the field with the farmer placing 4 – 5 rhizomes in each freshly dug hole as he moves upward the row following the contour of the land. Yangbong trees, but also other plants can be intercropped in every two rows of broom grass. The grass helps to retain soil moisture which promotes e.g. the Yangbong trees’ growth. Once a year the broom grass area needs weeding and thinning. After harvest of the grass the cuttings and fragments can be used for mulching the soil surface around the broom grass stems and the trees. This not only retains soil moisture, but by the decaying process it enriches the soil by nutrients (natural compost).Typically, broom grass can be harvested 2 – 3 years after it has been planted. During the rainy season (June to October), the roots and the new shoots of broom grass grow quickly. The strengths of a broom grass plantation are that firstly it prevents soil erosion and secondly its different elements (e.g. flowers) which provide a higher household income. Model farmer’s broom grass plantation is 1.5 ha and may generate an income of around 2,000,000 Kip/ton/year. Currently, broom grass can be used for handicrafts, household products such as brooms and can also be sold to neighboring countries. There are currently many households engaged in planting broom grass for commercial purposes on their own land. This reduces conflicts among the village people araising when it had to be collecte in natural areas. Weaknesses: The root system of broom grass grows quickly which may result in the competition for nutrients and space with the other crops. Therefore appropriate management may be required by cutting and removing excessive rhizomes and culms. Furthermore, the roots can expand so extensively (difficult to remove when they grow up) that it would exceed the farmer’s capacity to control them in order to get enough space for inter-crops. And planting broom grass on sloping terrain may cause difficulties to maintain and harvest the crop.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : Broom grass cultivation area on slope area
Caption, explanation of photo : Broom grass feature surrounding the rice field
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 11/07/2017
Date : 11/07/2017
Location : Chorlaveing village, Ta-oy district, Salavan province
Location : Chorlaveing village, Ta-oy district, Salavan province
Name of photographer : Theppadith Meunpanthavong
Name of photographer : Theppadith Meunpanthavong
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Ta-oy district, Salavan province
Further specification of location : Chorlaveing village
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : single site,
Indicate year of implementation : 2011
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through land users' innovation,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, conserve ecosystem, reduce risk of disasters, create beneficial economic impact, create beneficial social impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland,
Land use type : Perennial (non-woody) cropping,
other (specify) :
Main crops (cash and food crops) : Broom grass, Nothaphoebe umbelliflora
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
Number of growing seasons per year : 1,
Specify :
Livestock density (if relevant) :
SLM group : rotational systems (crop rotation, fallows, shifting cultivation), improved ground/ vegetation cover,
other (specify) :
Specify the spread of the Technology : evenly spread over an area,
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered : < 0.1 km2 (10 ha),
Comments :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation, reduce land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Phonesyli Phanvongsa
Date : 11/07/2017
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing) :
The area have 300 m length , 80 m - 120 m width - Space between plants is 2 x 2 m, 4-5 rhizomes per plant hole. - Slope angle 11-15% , for foot slope is 3-5%. Protected area (protected area on foot slope along the cultivation area is 3 m) - Equipment: knife, spade, basket for rhizom collection ond digging wholes - Broom grass species are taken from natural forsts by cutting the rhizome include some stems. - Density of plants is 6000 seedling/ha The native broom grass species that can be cultivated in almost all types of soil. This species has long leaves (60-80cm) can play as a shelter from direct sunlight into the soil, and the erect culms can reach a length of 1.5 - 2 meters. One clump of broom grass would typically have between 10-20 culms. The land that was previously used for shifting cultivation has recently been planted with (Persea kuzii) Yangbong intercropped with broom grass. Now there is an expansion upland rice area next to the broom grass and the Yangbong plantation, this enables the farmer to grow rice intercropped with broom grass in the new area for first year after broom grass plantation, then rotate rice cultivation in previous area where Yangbong and broom grass will be harvest. Actually, in this model the farmer has two plots – one plot has been cultivated since 2011 consisting of predominantly broom grass and there is also Yanbong, whilst the other plot has only broom grass since 2012 and then planted Yangbong in 2015. Furthermore he planted other fruit trees and created a fishpond at the bottom of the broom grass plantation. This is because the culms which grow closely together help to block sediment run-off into the fishpond. Previously this area was used to grow rice, Yangbong and other fruit trees, after rice harvesting and Yangbong cutting, the broom grass was used before upland rice cultivation again and it is surrounded by several big stones and rocks .
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : 3 ha
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare : Length 300 meters, width 100 meters
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : kip
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD = : 8400
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50,000 kip
Activity : Land preparation
Activity : Collection of broom grass
Activity : Digging holes and planting
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Management
Type of measure : Agronomic
Timing : 30 days before onset of rain
Timing :
Timing :
Specify input : Labor for land preparation
Specify input : Labor for collection of broom grass seedlings
Specify input : Labor for digging holes and planting
Unit : Person-day
Unit : Person-day
Unit : Person-day
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 3
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 150000
Total costs per input : 150000
Total costs per input : 150000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Spade
Specify input : Knife
Specify input : Basket
Unit : Piece
Unit : Piece
Unit : Piece
Quantity : 4
Quantity : 4
Quantity : 4
Costs per Unit : 15000
Costs per Unit : 25000
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 60000
Total costs per input : 100000
Total costs per input : 200000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 810000
Activity : weeding
Activity : cut out dead stems
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Agronomic
Timing/ frequency : annually
Timing/ frequency : annually
Specify input : Labor for weeding and cut out dead stems
Unit : Person
Quantity : 4
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 200000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 200000
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : Labor is the most important factor affecting the costs

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 501-750 mm, 751-1,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 450
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : Heavy rains is occur in July - August
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Ta-oy District Agriculture and forest Technical Service Center
Agro-climatic zone : humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : gentle (3-5%), rolling (11-15%),
Landforms : mountain slopes, footslopes,
Altitudinal zone : 101-500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : convex situations,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : deep (81-120 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : fine/ heavy (clay),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : fine/ heavy (clay),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : 5-50 m,
Availability of surface water : good,
Water quality (untreated) : for agricultural use only (irrigation),
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : commercial/ market,
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : mechanized/ motorized,
Gender : women, men,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : 2-5 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : large-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized), individual,
other (specify) :
health : moderate
education : moderate
technical assistance : moderate
employment (e.g. off-farm) : poor
markets : moderate
energy : moderate
roads and transport : moderate
drinking water and sanitation : moderate
financial services : poor

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase in crop production such as upland rice because broom grass can protect them from rainstorm damage leading to better rice yield.
farm income : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously: Very low income from scarse broom grass collection in natural forests. After broom grass cultivation: the farmer gets around 2,000,000 Kip/ton.
diversity of income sources : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously: the range of products to be sold on the market was small, insecure and its quantity very low (small income from banana, rice, pineapple). After broom grass cultivation: Broom grass generates further and even main income. And because it protects also the fish pond below the slope area, fish can be a further income source.
workload : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before, it took many days to harvest the broom grass from the natural forest, as it was far away from the village. After broom grass cultivation: It is easy to harvest the broom grass (Maintenance is not labour-intensive compared to the situation before).
conflict mitigation : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Because there is a limited abundance of natural broom grass in the natural forests collection has repeatedly caused conflicts among village's people. After: Many of them have now their individual areas for broom grass harvesting which reduced the conflict potential.
surface runoff : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously: decreased vegetation on slope area and abundance of mulching promoted heavy surface runoff accompagnied by soil erosion and accumulation mainly on foot slopes and river banks. After: The root system of broom grass and the mulching improved the soil surface structure that enhanced the water infiltration and absorption during heavy rains.
soil moisture : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Previously: Less vegetation cover exposed soil to sunlight which fastly dries up the soil . After: Broom grass have many leaves and their detritus (mulch of dead leaves and stems ) covers soil surface and make soil more moist
soil loss : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Broom grass can minimize soil loss by their root system and detritus cover soil surface when there heavy rain occurs.
soil accumulation : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before: Without barrier and improved soil cover the soil sediments in the storm water runoff were washed directly into the stream. After: the heavy runoff is hampered by better soil cover that retain soil. Additionally, the plant detritus provides material for further soil formation.
nutrient cycling/ recharge : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : After Broom grass cultivation the detritus has been increased which improves the nutrient status of soil and provides nutrients to the soil and its organisms.
landslides/ debris flows : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The dense and expanded cover of broom grass with its deep roots are able to reduce landslides in the watershed.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
downstream siltation : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Density of broom grass is playing a significant role as a filter to reduce downstream siltation
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments regarding impact assessment :
Season : wet/ rainy season
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : very well
Short-term returns : slightly negative,
Long-term returns : very positive,
Short-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
Long-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 10-50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 90-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Broom grass roots penetrate deeply into the the soil and are able to hold the soil together leading to prevent soil erosion.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : In this region other plants and crops can be intercropped within the Broom grass cultivation area.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Broom grass improves the income for household.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Broom grass can reduces surface runoff during heavy rains.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Detritus of broom grass increases the biomass on topsoil and promotes organic matter and nutrients for the plants.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Broom grass roots can expand extensively and can result in competition with other crops, respectively the roots may invade soil space for inter-cropping.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Broom grass on a sloping terrain may make it difficult to maintain and harvest the crop.
How can they be overcome? : Attentive and good management by cutting some parts of them
How can they be overcome? :

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1 time
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 2 persons