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Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Vegetable home garden in sloping terrain
Further comments
Date 26/08/2017
Location Darkeuy village, Darkchung district of Xekong province
Name of photographer Khampheng Bounphanya
Name of photographer 59,13

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Vegetable garden to improve vegetation cover in sloping land
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Xekong province
Further specification of location : Darkchung district

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname :
First name(s) : Homsamone
Gender : female,
Name of institution :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : The technique involving the creation of vegetable home gardens on sloping land was initiated through the villagers’ local insight and it has been practiced over many generations. Due to the fact that the village is located on sloping land there are limitations regarding the availability of agricultural land suitable for growing vegetables in a home garden.
Description : The local farmers mainly grow vegetables with other crops such as upland rice in upland areas and vegetable home gardens. In addition, they grow also vegetables along riverbanks during the dry season. Land users living on mountainous areas typically grow vegetables during the wet season and some manage to cultivate them during dry season if appropriate land is available along streams and river banks. Vegetables have traditionally been cultivated by farmers in Darkchung district on terraced fields for many generations. However, growing vegetables on areas of land with a higher gradient (rolling slopes: 11-15%) has a number of restrictions, namely the lack of suitable land available and the limited water supply. As a result of these restrictions on land and water farmers have developed their own initiatives to enable the cultivation of vegetables on sloping land both for household consumption and for sale. The vegetables most commonly grown are coriander, morning glory, and Chinese cabbage and mustard leaf. In 2000 farmers expanded their vegetable gardens on slopes by preparing and cultivating the land manually. Suitable land for such vegetable gardens can be selected along the lower banks of a stream (there should be a distance of approximately 5 – 10 meters from the river to the vegetable plots). Firstly, grass has to be removed prior to ploughing the soil manually. Then the soil from the top part of the land should be transferred to the bottom to result in a levelling effect so that a relatively flat garden bed is created. The preparation process to develop the whole garden takes about 3 – 4 weeks and requires a team of two to three people. In the preparation process there is a distinctive drawback when the farmers remove the humus and topsoil from the upper section of the field and leave the less fertile subsoil behind. As a result, this might affect the productivity during the early stage of vegetable growth; and on the contrary the lower sections piled with nutritious topsoil from the upper parts become more suitable for plant growth. To solve this problem, the farmers shape and level the nutrient-rich topsoil up to 3-4 small terraces top down. On average, with an area of 0.01ha such vegetable fields in Darkchung district are divided into small terraces with a width of 60 – 80 centimetres and a length of 2 – 3 metres (about 7 – 8 terraced plots per household, mostly two terrace arrangements in parallel). There is approximately a 30 cm difference between the levels of the upper to the next lower vegetable terrace. Once the land levelling has been completed, the farmers are then able to prepare the plots by firstly ploughing the soil and then letting it dry for 5 – 7 days. The next stage involves the use of wooden poles to break down bigger clods of earth. Then a small earth dike (10cm in hight) is pilled up around each terrace to protect furhter against soil erosion by water. Before starting the vegetable cultivation fencing is needed against animal entry. After this, they use a rake to adjust the plot’s surface. The benefits of this terracing method is to extend the cultivation of vegetables on stream river banks for the household consumption. Futhermore, the terracing method and the better soil cover lead to protection of the stream banks from erosion and sediment transport. However, this technique have some constraints as well beause it is difficult to level the surface of the soil in these areas particularly by removing soil from the upper sections to the lower sections of the terraces.
 
Caption, explanation of photo : Terraces of a vegetable home garden
Further comments :
Date :
Location : Darkchung district of Xekong province
Name of photographer : Khampheng Bounphanya
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Xekong province
Further specification of location : Darkchung district
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : 2-10 sites,
Indicate year of implementation :
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : 10-50 years ago,
Specify how the Technology was introduced : as part of a traditional system (> 50 years),
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, reduce, prevent, restore land degradation,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland,
Land use type : Annual cropping,
other (specify) :
Annual cropping - Specify crops : seed crops - sesame, poppy, mustard, other, vegetables - leafy vegetables (salads, cabbage, spinach, other),
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Annual cropping system : null
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops :
If crop type is not listed above, specify other crop :
Number of growing seasons per year : 3,
Specify :
Is intercropping practiced? : null
If yes, specify which crops are intercropped :
Is crop rotation practiced? : null
If yes, specify :
Comments : Main crops: Chinese mustard and cabbage
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied :
other (e.g. post-flooding) : Water from stream
Comments :
SLM group : improved ground/ vegetation cover, cross-slope measure, home gardens,
other (specify) :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : prevent land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : U.Gaemperli
Date : 5/6/2019
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Indicate size and area unit : 200 Square meters
If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha = : 0,02 Hectare
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : LAK
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD = : 8000
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 30000
Activity : Land preparation (ploughing and levelling into terraces)
Activity : Fencing
Timing (season) : Before rainy season
Timing (season) : Before vegetable planting
Specify input : Labour for land ploughing and levelling
Specify input : Labour for fencing
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 21
Quantity : 4
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 630000
Total costs per input : 120000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Shovel
Specify input : Digger tool
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 100000
Costs per Unit : 100000
Total costs per input : 200000
Total costs per input : 200000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Nails
Specify input : Wire
Specify input : Wooden posts
Specify input : Wooden plank
Specify input : Bamboo
Unit : kg
Unit : roll
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 2
Quantity : 80
Quantity : 20
Quantity : 300
Costs per Unit : 10000
Costs per Unit : 60000
Costs per Unit : 5000
Costs per Unit : 5000
Costs per Unit : 2000
Total costs per input : 20000
Total costs per input : 120000
Total costs per input : 400000
Total costs per input : 100000
Total costs per input : 600000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 2390000
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD : 298.75
Activity : Reshaping of the the terraces (maintenance of terraces)
Activity : Planting of seedling
Activity : Weeding
Activity : Manure
Timing/ frequency : After harvesting
Timing/ frequency : After land preparation
Timing/ frequency : From time to time
Timing/ frequency : From time to time
Specify input : Labour for re-levelling the terraces
Specify input : Labour for weeding
Specify input : Labour to apply manure
Specify input : Labour for planting
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Unit : person day
Quantity : 4
Quantity : 3
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 3
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Total costs per input : 120000
Total costs per input : 90000
Total costs per input : 30000
Total costs per input : 90000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Seedling
Unit : bag
Quantity : 4
Costs per Unit : 5000
Total costs per input : 20000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Manure
Unit : kg
Quantity : 30
Costs per Unit : 5000
Total costs per input : 150000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 500000
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD : 62.5
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : The labour for land levelling is the most important factor affecting the costs.

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 1,501-2,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm :
Specifications/ comments on rainfall :
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Darkchung meteorological station
Agro-climatic zone : humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : rolling (11-15%),
Landforms : mountain slopes,
Altitudinal zone : 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : convex situations,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : moderately deep (51-80 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : coarse/ light (sandy), medium (loamy, silty),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : medium (loamy, silty),
Topsoil organic matter : medium (1-3%),
Ground water table : < 5 m,
Availability of surface water : good,
Water quality (untreated) : for agricultural use only (irrigation),
Water quality refers to: :
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : mixed (subsistence/ commercial),
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : women,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : < 0.5 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : small-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
Water use rights : open access (unorganized),
other (specify) :
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system? : null
Specify :
health : moderate
education : moderate
technical assistance : good
employment (e.g. off-farm) : moderate
markets : moderate
energy : moderate
roads and transport : moderate
drinking water and sanitation : moderate
financial services : moderate

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase crop production
risk of production failure : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Lower risk of flooding compared to other areas of vegetable gardens located in the lower plains.
product diversity : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase and diversification of vegetable production from their own vegetable home gardens due to enlargement of production area.
production area (new land under cultivation/ use) : 1
Quantity before SLM : 0.02 ha
Quantity after SLM : 0.04 ha
Comments/ specify :
land management : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : As the land users use sloping land on river banks nearer to the village by shaping the land into terraces the land management for vegetable gardens has been simplified compared to the collection of wild vegetable on sloping forest area far away from the village.
farm income : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Before the farmers mainly produced for their home consumption. After: The vegetable production increased substantially to a level it can be also sold at the local market.
diversity of income sources : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : The new option to sell vegetables at the local market diversified the income sources.
workload : -1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Workload decreased mainly for women as they do not have to spent time anymore to collect wild vegetables in the broad upland forest.
situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups (gender, age, status, ehtnicity etc.) : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Women benefit from this technology and it reduces the women's workload to collect vegetable from forest.
soil loss : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Protect stream banks from soil erosion by rain water.
vegetation cover : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increased vegetation cover by the vegetable plantation. Before it was fallow covered with scarce grass vegetation.
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments/ specify : Less sediment transportation due to improved vegetation cover in the slope areas of the river banks.
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements) :
Short-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
Long-term returns : positive,
Short-term returns : neutral/ balanced,
Long-term returns : positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 11-50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 91-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : No
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Lower risk of flooding in relation to other vegetable fields which are located in the lower plains.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Vegetable cultivation generates an income as well as provides food for farmers.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Gardening is an activity which women can actively and fully become involved in as it can be implemented in the village.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Vegetables require fertilizers to improve the yield.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Establishing and maintaining vegetable production is time consuming as it includes a number of activities such as land levelling, fertilizing, and the construction of fencing to prevent animal entry.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Suitable land is limited due to mountainous terrains.
How can they be overcome? : Farmers also need to collect timber as building material to support the earth terraces so that fertilizer can be retained within the field.
How can they be overcome? : It also requires other equipment and tools for fencing.
How can they be overcome? :
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : The site selection for establishment.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Land preparation and land levelling – farmers mainly remove top soil from upper to lower section to level the plots.
How can they be overcome? : This technique will establish in slopes area (less than 15% of slop) and the plots are located approximately 5 meters from the river/stream in order to avoid soil erosion.
How can they be overcome? : People will remove soil from the upper to the lower sections of the plots in order to level them. Topsoil may have to be temporarily stockpiled somewhere so that it can be used as backfill where it is needed as the topsoil is more fertile and thus more productive.

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 28/08/2017
Comments :