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ບັນດາເຕັກນິກ ແລະ ແນວທາງໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໃນລາວ

Database


General Information

1. Image

 
Caption, explanation of photo Waste from vegetable, sugar, and molasses for making Effective micro-organism
Further comments
Date 27/08/2017
Location Phouvong district, Attapeu province
Name of photographer Phonesyli Phanvongsa
Name of photographer

2. Name of the SLM Technology (hereafter referred to as the Technology)

Name : Use of Effective Micro-organism (EM) to improve soil fertility in vegetable home gardens
Locally used name :
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapeu province
Further specification of location : Phouvong district,

3. Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Specify the key resource person : land user,
Specify the key resource person : SLM specialist,
Specify the key resource person : SLM specialist,
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Other (specify) :
Lastname / surname : Sysomphou
Lastname / surname : Saiyaphone
Lastname / surname : Phaviseth
First name(s) : Khanthavy
First name(s) : Chanty
First name(s) : Vixay
Gender : female,
Gender : female,
Gender : male,
Name of institution :
Name of institution : District of Agriculture and Forestry Office
Name of institution : District of Agriculture and Forestry Office
Address : Agriculture Technical Service Center Phouvong district, Attapue province
Address : Phouvong district of Attapue province
Address : Phouvong district of Attapue province
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Phone no. 1 : 0304867035
Phone no. 1 : 030 5184849
Phone no. 1 : 020 99596456
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
Phone no. 2 (mobile) :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 1 :
E-mail 2 :
E-mail 2 :
E-mail 2 :

4. Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)? : 11/01/2017
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT : Yes

5. Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology? : No
Comments :

6. Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

No data !

7. Reference to/ comparison with other Technologies

No data !

Specifications

1. Description of the SLM Technology

Definition of the Technology : Effective micro-organism (EM) is a liquid concentrate which can be used as a pre planting treatment, for actively growing vegetables and helps to increase beneficial soil microorganisms and suppression of harmful ones.
Description : Farmers have practiced household gardening for a considerable period of time in order to increase food security and generate an income. However some farmers have experienced difficulties in cultivating vegetables due to various challenges such as the soil type, for example clay or compacted soil, ineffective water seepage as well as the soil’s low nutrient content making it unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Consequently, the problems that the farmers often faced included vegetables of inferior quality, outbreaks of diseases, as well as surges of insects and pests which typically reduce yields by approximately 30%. In order to increase production and cultivate at a preferable period of time, farmers often applied chemical fertilizer in combination with animal compost. However the production outputs and quality of the produce were not up to expectations if compared to agricultural practices that do not involve the use of chemicals. It has been noted that vegetables grown with the use of chemical fertilizers cannot be kept for a long period of time as they tend to spoil more quickly, despite the increase in production yields. In 2015 an International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) Programme introduced a technique to produce effective micro-organisms (EM) and encouraged people to use these to improve the nutrient content of the soil and thereby enhance the quality of home garden vegetables as well as other potential crops. The farmers gained an interest in EM and began to produce it according to the programme’s instructions. The production of EM is actually relatively easy, and farmers can use organic waste from vegetables such as Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea), morning glory and water spinach mixed with 1kg of sugar and 0.5 kg of molasses (if available, or it can be excluded, but it should be available at an agricultural produce outlet). Firstly the organic waste should be sliced/chopped into small pieces and then sugar and molasses are added which are then all mixed in a 20 litre container. Then a one metre long stick should be used to mix all the ingredients and the container lid should then be sealed properly. Once these steps have been completed, the EM production container should avoid sunlight and be stored in the shade so as to ensure the quality of EM. After one week the container can be opened to mix the ingredients again and then it can continue to remain in the shade for another month. Thereafter, EM mixture is ready for use and one table spoon should be added to 10 litres of water, and once this has been mixed well it can be applied to the vegetables in the home garden by using water cans. Watering involves pouring the solution from the leaves to the stems or to the roots of the vegetables. After the application of the EM solution it was noted that there were more earthworms around the vegetable plots and also that there was an increase in soil moisture and nutrients. Furthermore it was also noted that the soil was previously relatively white and compacted and not black and porous allowing for good water seepage. In this way water is absorbed by the soil in the plot rather than running off over the surface. Plant pathogens and pests/insects such as red ants and leaf worms was reduced. As a result, the vegetables grew well with a good average weight, and there was an increase in both the quality and the yield. As a comparison, in the past farmers used to be able to harvest 5-6 kg per plot, but now they are capable of securing 12-15kg per plot. However, weeds still remain a problem and these include Eleusine indica and thorny grass which compete for nutrients with the crops. It is a challenge for the farmers to control these weeds including other natural vegetables.
   
Caption, explanation of photo : Waste from vegetable, sugar, and molasses
Caption, explanation of photo : Vegetable garden plot where the EM solution is applied to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields
Further comments :
Further comments :
Date : 11/01/2017
Date : 27/08/2017
Location : Phouvong district Attapeu province
Location : Phouvong district, Attapeu province
Name of photographer : Phonesyli phanvongsa
Name of photographer : Phonesyli phanvongsa
Country : Lao People's Democratic Republic
Region/ State/ Province : Attapeu province
Further specification of location : Phouvong district,
Number of sites considered/analysed in the documentation of this technology : single site,
Indicate year of implementation : 2015
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date : less than 10 years ago (recently),
Specify how the Technology was introduced : through projects/ external interventions,
other (specify) :
Comments (type of project, etc.) :

2. Classification of the SLM Technology

Main purpose(s) of the Technology (land user’s perspective) : improve production, reduce, prevent, restore land degradation, create beneficial economic impact,
other (specify) :
Land use type : Cropland, assets/img/pictos/land_1.png, , tech_lu_cropland,
Land use type : Annual cropping,
other (specify) :
Main crops (cash and food crops) : Peppermint, Lettuce, Chinese Kale, Sweet Basil
Comments :
If land use has changed due to the implementation of the Technology, indicate land use before implementation of the Technology :
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied : rainfed,
other (e.g. post-flooding) :
Comments :
Number of growing seasons per year : 2,
Specify :
Livestock density (if relevant) :
SLM group : integrated soil fertility management, home gardens,
other (specify) :
Specify the spread of the Technology : evenly spread over an area,
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered : < 0.1 km2 (10 ha),
Comments :
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation : reduce land degradation, adapt to land degradation,
Comments :

3. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

Author : Fadavanh Souliya
Date : 11/01/2017
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing) :
This bio-extracting technique can be done easily and farmers can use local waste materials such as cabbage, pineapple, spinach and so on. With the following ingredients: 3 kg of vegetables, 1 kg of sugar, 0.5 liters of molasses. Then bring the vegetables to chop thoroughly and then bring the sugar and mixed molasses into a 20 liter tank prepared and mixed together, the area of the bio-extracted technique is 2 meters x 2 meters, Then put about 1 meter of wood to mix it and close the barrel to keep it in the air when practicing all the techniques and then we will bring a bio-extracted tank to a sunny shade to preserve the quality of detergent, Then one more week, we can open the tank for all the ingredients again, so we can do this for a period of time, up to a month, and then add the biological extracts 1 spoon / 10 liters of water to mix and then irrigate the vegetable.
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated : per Technology area,
Specify currency used for cost calculations :
other/ national currency (specify) : Kip
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD = : 8500
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day : 50000
Activity : Collect the waste vegetable
Activity : chop to small size
Activity : Mix with sugar and molasses
Activity : Irrigate vegetable
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Other measures
Type of measure : Other measures
Type of measure : Other measures
Timing : After harvesting
Timing : After harvesting
Timing :
Timing :
Specify input : Labor
Unit : person
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 50000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Knife
Specify input : irrigation tank
Specify input : Bucket
Unit : peice
Unit : peice
Unit : peice
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 25000
Total costs per input : 20000
Total costs per input : 30000
Total costs per input : 50000
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
Specify input : Molasses
Specify input : Sugar
Unit : kg
Unit : liter
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 8000
Costs per Unit : 7000
Total costs per input : 8000
Total costs per input : 14000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for establishment of the Technology : 172000
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs : FNML ( Food and Nutrition Market Linkage ) project support an equipment
Comments :
Activity : Collect the waste vegetable
Activity : chop to small size
Activity : Mix with sugar and molasses
Activity : Irrigate vegetable
Type of measure : Agronomic
Type of measure : Other measures
Type of measure : Other measures
Type of measure : Other measures
Timing/ frequency : After harvesting
Timing/ frequency : After harvesting
Timing/ frequency :
Timing/ frequency :
Specify input : Labor
Unit : person
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 50000
Total costs per input : 50000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Specify input : Knife
Specify input : irrigation tank
Specify input : tank
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Unit : piece
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 1
Costs per Unit : 20000
Costs per Unit : 30000
Costs per Unit : 25000
Total costs per input : 20000
Total costs per input : 30000
Total costs per input : 25000
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
% of costs borne by land users :
Specify input : Molasses
Specify input : Sugar
Unit : kg
Unit : liter
Quantity : 1
Quantity : 2
Costs per Unit : 7000
Costs per Unit : 8000
Total costs per input : 7000
Total costs per input : 16000
% of costs borne by land users : 100
% of costs borne by land users : 100
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology : 148000
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs : FNML ( Food and Nutrition Market Linkage ) project support an equipment
Comments :
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs : Labor

4. Natural and human environment

Average annual rainfall : 2,001-3,000 mm,
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm : 2500
Specifications/ comments on rainfall : Between November and April, rainfall is about 20 - 80 mm From May to October rain started to fall about 200-500 mm, much rainfall before the first, from June to October.
Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered : Climatology Department of Phouvong District
Agro-climatic zone : sub-humid,
Specifications/ comments on climate :
Slopes on average : flat (0-2%),
Landforms : plateau/plains,
Altitudinal zone : 101-500 m a.s.l.,
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in : not relevant,
Comments and further specifications on topography :
Soil depth on average : very shallow (0-20 cm), shallow (21-50 cm),
Soil texture (topsoil) : coarse/ light (sandy),
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface) : fine/ heavy (clay),
Topsoil organic matter : low (<1%),
Ground water table : 5-50 m,
Availability of surface water : medium,
Water quality (untreated) : good drinking water,
Is water salinity a problem? : No
Is flooding of the area occurring? : No
Species diversity : medium,
Habitat diversity : medium,
Sedentary or nomadic : Sedentary,
other (specify) :
Market orientation of production system : subsistence (self-supply), mixed (subsistence/ commercial,
Off-farm income : less than 10% of all income,
Relative level of wealth : poor, average,
Individuals or groups : individual/ household,
Level of mechanization : manual work,
Gender : women, men,
Age of land users : youth, middle-aged,
Land size per household/farm unit applying the technology : < 0.5 ha,
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)? : small-scale,
Comments :
Land ownership : individual, titled,
other (specify) :
Land use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
Water use rights : individual,
other (specify) :
health : good
education : good
technical assistance : moderate
employment (e.g. off-farm) : moderate
markets : good
energy : good
roads and transport : good
drinking water and sanitation : good
financial services : good

5. Impacts and concluding statements

Crop production : 3
Quantity before SLM : 5-6 kg/plot of vegetables
Quantity after SLM : Increased 12-15 kg/plot of vegetables
Comments/ specify :
crop quality : 2
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Strong and sound plants. Due to reduced plant pathogens and pests/insects such as red ants and leaf worms.
product diversity : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increase and diversity of different type of vegetables for home consumption and selling.
farm income : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Increased income from selling vegetables
surface runoff : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : Water is absorbed by the soil in the plot rather than running off over the surface.
soil crusting/ sealing : 1
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : soil was previously relatively white and compacted and now it is black and porous allowing for good water seepage
beneficial species (predators, earthworms, pollinators) : null
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify : More earthworms
water availability (groundwater, springs) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
reliable and stable stream flows in dry season (incl. low flows) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream flooding (undesired) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
downstream siltation :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
groundwater/ river pollution :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
buffering/ filtering capacity (by soil, vegetation, wetlands) :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
wind transported sediments :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on neighbours' fields :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
damage on public/ private infrastructure :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
impact of greenhouse gases :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Specify :
[Label left] :
[Measure] :
[Label right] :
Quantity before SLM :
Quantity after SLM :
Comments/ specify :
Comments regarding impact assessment :
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Season : dry season
Type of climatic change/ extreme : increase
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
Type of climatic change/ extreme : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
Season : wet/ rainy season
Type of climatic change/ extreme : decrease
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : moderately
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : well
How does the Technology cope with it? : not well
Short-term returns : positive,
Long-term returns : very positive,
Short-term returns : positive,
Long-term returns : very positive,
How many land users in the area have adopted/implemented the Technology? : 10-50%,
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered) :
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments? : 90-100%,
Comments :
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions? : Yes
If yes, indicate to which changing conditions it was adapted : changing markets,
other (specify) :
Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.) :
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Easy to find the vegetable waste and not complicate process.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Reduces household expenses for input cost as the cost of producing of EM is cheaper than buy chemical fertilizer
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view : Increased household income from vegetables and improved food security
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Environmentally friendly and good for land user's health.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view : Increased both quantity and quality of vegetable production.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : EM solution also encourages more grass/weeds to grow especially leusine indica and thorny grass that challenge for farmers to control weed.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view : Sometimes, it is difficult to find molasses in general grocery
How can they be overcome? :
How can they be overcome? :

6. References and links

Which of the following methods/ sources of information were used? : field visits, field surveys, source_field, interviews with land users, source_interviews_landusers,
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 1
Specify (e.g. number of informants) : 2
Title/ description : ນຳ້ຳສະກັດຊີວະພາບ (ປຸຍນຳ້ຳ), ສພກສຍ (SEADA)
URL : http://lao44.org/content/1652